Causality and systemic features

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Gestalt theory
By Max Wertheimer, an address before the Kant Society, Berlin, 7 December 1924. What is Gestalt theory and what does it intend? Gestalt theory was the outcome of concrete investigations in psychology, logic, and epistemology. The prevailing situation at the time of its origin is briefly sketched,
Unnatural Selection
By Tom Standage, 28 July 1998. Reflects on several books that discuss modeling and technological advance.
A war and its fearsome consequences: How the world has changed post-Iraq
By Anne Penketh, The Independent, 13 December 2005. Examples of the law of unintended consequences. The complexity of causality.
A brief history of holons
By Mark Edwards, n.d. The idea of hierarchy and of their constituent part-wholes, or holons, has, as Arthur Koestler points out, a long and distinguished history.
A realist critique of the use of system in historiography
By Haines Brown, November 2006. A systems approach is appealing because it promises to integrate a variety of quite different factors to explain a larger non-reducible whole. However, this promise can't be realized without adopting a realist position, which few historians are inclined to do.