History of Oceania as a whole|
Date: Thu, 03 Sep 1998 01:26:11 +0200
From: Norbert BRAumann <N.BRAumann@tu-bs.de>
Organization: Technical University Braunschweig (Germany)
To: Bougainville Info eXcerpts <N.BRAumann@tu-bs.de>
Subject: [BougI-xL Guardian] Fourth NGO Parallel Forum Communique
Fourth NGO Parallel Forum Communique: The Pacific Way
From The Guardian, (Australia)
2 September 1998
The Fourth NGO Parallel Forum brought together representatives of
community groups, churches and indigenous peoples organisations from around
the Pacific. It was held from August 14-17, in Pohnpei, Federated States of
Micronesia, the week before the official South Pacific Forum Heads of
Participants came from the Federated States of Micronesia; Republic of the
Marshall Islands; Guam; Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas; Ka Pae'aina
(Hawai'i); Papua New Guinea; Bougainville; Solomon Islands; Vanuatu;
Republic of the Fiji Islands; Kingdom of Tonga; Cook Islands; Te Ao Maohi
(French Polynesia); Australia (indigenous and non-indigenous); Aotearoa
(New Zealand); East Timor; Philippines; First Nations Canada; Japan; United
States of America.
It was organised by the Pacific Concerns Resource Centre (PCRC), and hosted
at the Micronesian Seminar by the Federation of Non-Government
Organisations in FSM, and the FSM Women's Associations Network (FSMWAN).
The following is the communique (abridged) issued by the NGO Forum:
Twenty years ago, the second Nuclear Free Pacific and Independent Pacific
Movement Conference met in Pohnpei.
They discussed: the protection of our Pacific environment; developing our
communities; respecting the right of self-determination for indigenous
peoples; and struggles for independence by colonised Pacific peoples.
Some of those representatives later became Prime Ministers, Heads of State
and prominent community leaders in the region.
Twenty years on, non-government and community groups are meeting again in
Pohnpei at the Fourth NGO Parallel Forum, to set forward our visions and
concerns. The issues raised in 1978 are still on our agenda today.
The theme of this year's South Pacific Forum highlights economic issues.
Economics should be about people. Economic development must work to support
the things we value most: our land and waters, our health and education,
our culture and values, our children's future.
In 1971, the first South Pacific Forum meeting of Pacific Heads of
Government agreed on a vision of an integrated Pacific, which was based on
common values unique to Pacific island countries. This vision was termed
the Pacific Way.
This vision has been confronted by the political and economic interests of
Australia, New Zealand and other major economic powers, who have attempted
to derail its realisation.
This was shown with the results of the July 1998 Forum Economic Ministers
Meeting (FEMM). The Forum's Economic Action Plan is based on narrow
economic models which take little or no account of the central importance
of systems of customary land tenure or the traditional "subsistence"
economy for Pacific peoples.
IMF Structural Adjustment Programs and the APEC Non-Binding Investment
Principles are not a sound basis for Pacific island development.
Despite two decades of political independence, our economies are still
based on the exploitation of our people, labour and natural resources, with
no respect for traditional economies.
We are being caught up in a fundamentally flawed model that takes little
account of the diversity or strengths of island societies.
The current economic models endorsed in the FEMM communique represent a
form of colonialism based on exploitation:
We therefore call upon Forum Island governments to revive their original
vision of the Pacific Way:
- which demands privatisation and promotes individualism in societies
that are essentially communal;
- which puts profits before people;
- which values competition instead of co-operation;
- which defines "progress" in terms of GDP rather than health, education
and quality of life.
- We support increased trade between Forum Island countries through
Bilateral Trade Agreements which can build a web of relationships leading
to healthy integration in our region. We support co-operation among Forum
Island countries, but co-operation without domination by imposed economic
- We view with caution the FEMM initiative which calls for a free trade
agreement between Forum Island countries, as we fear it may not be based on
mutual respect, fair trade and appropriate environmental standards.
- We call on Forum countries and international donors to implement the
"/" concept endorsed by the 1995 UN World Summit on Social Development,
to increase spending on health, education and the social sector, and to
ensure that progress on implementing this target be monitored.
Nuclear Free Pacific
We are totally committed to a Pacific that is free of all nuclear
activities. We are strongly opposed to the transhipment of plutonium and
high level nuclear waste through our Pacific Ocean, and ongoing threats to
dump nuclear waste in our islands.
There are many actions that can be taken:
- We call on the Forum to develop a regional strategy to effectively
oppose all aspects of the nuclear cycle in our region.
- We call on the Forum to convene a conference to review, amend and
strengthen the Rarotonga Treaty for a South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone,
involving Forum member governments, the nuclear powers, special experts
non-government and community representatives.
- We urge the Forum to press France for further studies and ongoing
monitoring of Moruroa, Fangataufa and neighbouring atolls after the end
nuclear testing, especially looking at health and environmental issues.
- We call on the Forum to use the Post Forum dialogue to press the nuclear
powers to fulfil their obligations under the SPNFZ Treaty and Waigani
Convention protocols and respect the sovereignty of Pacific Island States.
- We call on Forum Island countries to acknowledge the economic
difficulties facing the Marshall Islands, to support its efforts to find
development alternatives without relying on the nuclear waste trade. The
nuclear and toxic waste trade must not be a private sector growth area
- We ask Forum Island countries to tell Australia not to mine uranium
Jabiluka in the World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park, against the
wishes of Aboriginal landowners.
As we move towards the end of the United Nations Decade for the Eradication
of Colonialism, many Pacific peoples are still seeking the right to self-determination,
sovereignty and independence.
In the past, the South Pacific Forum actively supported colonised countries
to gain their independence. Forum members must continue to take a
leadership role in the decolonisation of the region. We therefore state:
Bougainville must remain on the Forum agenda. We acknowledge the current
peace process and endorse the United Nations Observer Mission on
Bougainville, and the Regional Neutral Peace Monitoring Group under the
auspices of the South Pacific Forum, involving monitors from Australia,
New Zealand, Fiji and Vanuatu.
The process of peace and reconciliation needs ongoing involvement by Forum
member countries to maintain the current ceasefire. We urge the formation
of the Bougainville Reconciliation Government, as part of the democratic
process to self-determination and independence for the people of Bougainville.
- We call on Forum governments to support the UN Decolonisation
Committee's stand-alone resolution on Guam at this year's debate at the UN
We ask Forum governments to accept the petitions from countries around
the region and internationally, which call on the Forum to include French-occupied
Polynesia on its agenda.
As with New Caledonia, we urge the Forum to send a Special Mission to
French Polynesia to learn more about recent developments, and to initiate
the reinscription of French Polynesia on the United Nations list of non-self-governing
- We call on Forum governments to recognise the Kanaka Maoli people's
right to self-determination, and to include Ka Pae'aina (Hawai'i) on the
Forum agenda... [and] support the reinscription of Ka Pae'aina (Hawai'i) on
the UN list of non-self-governing territories.
We call on the Forum to take the cue from the Melanesian Spearhead Group
and put West Papua on its agenda, with a view to re-examining
decolonisation as well as human rights and environmental abuses.
- Forum members should actively support United Nations and European Union
initiatives for East Timorese self-determination, including release of all
political prisoners, withdrawal of Indonesian military forces and support
for direct East Timorese participation in negotiations on the future of the
Despite 50 years of action since the signing of the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights, the violation of human rights continues in East Timor,
West Papua, Bougainville, and other countries in the Pacific.
There are other denials of fundamental rights in our region 97 the
intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples over their resources
under direct threat by bio-pirates, pharmaceutical companies, mining and
logging companies and foreign fishing fleets. Therefore:
- We welcome initiatives by Forum members to establish national Human
Rights Commissions. The Forum should support these important initiatives
and reaffirm the international principles that human rights are universal,
indivisible and inalienable.
We call on Forum members to speed up the process of ratification and
implementation of CEDAW, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the
Convention on Biological Diversity and other international instruments
relating to human rights and indigenous peoples rights.
The Forum Secretariat should develop gender policy in consultation with
regional and women's NGOs, with the view to establishing a Forum
Secretariat Women's Division.
- We ask Forum members to endorse and implement the principles of the
Draft Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
- We call on Forum Island countries to lobby in support of the right to
self-determination for indigenous peoples, including Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islanders in Australia, the Maori of Aotearoa (New Zealand) and
Kanaka Maoli of Ka Pae'aina (Hawai'i). The international human rights
agenda includes the collective rights of indigenous peoples in our region.
- We call on Forum Island countries to oppose the extinguishment of
Aboriginal bloodline rights to land, law and custom under the Native Title
Act and 10-Point Plan in Australia.
- We urge Forum Island countries to lobby in support of Aboriginal efforts
to bring a court case to the International Court of Justice, regarding
Convention on the Prevention of Genocide, disputing Australia's
interpretation, application and fulfillment of the Genocide Convention.
We call on the Forum to develop a regional strategy to protect
intellectual property rights. . .and traditional knowledge of indigenous
Indigenous peoples are struggling every day to protect their resources
knowledge, and we urge member governments to develop national legislation
to halt the theft of natural resources and heritage (from kava to medicinal
plants, and even to the level of genetic material under the Human Genome
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