From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Jun 26 06:22:55 2001
From: "Sadanand, Nanjundiah (Physics)" <email@example.com>
To: Mike Alewitz <ALEWITZM@mail.ccsu.edu>
Cc: Elizabeth Aaronsohn <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Just business...
Date: Mon, 25 Jun 2001 18:35:43 -0400
From: Stephen Kobasa [mailto:email@example.com]
Sent: Sunday, June 24, 2001 6:08 PM
U.S. supplies abusive regimes
Baltimore Sun Journal, 23 June 2001
The United States, which leads the world in arms sales, provides
weapons used against civilians, a nonproliferation group says.
The $20 billion or so worth of guns, ammunition, jet fighters, tanks,
missiles and other weapons that the United States sells to the world
each year is roughly the same in value as U.S. automobile exports.
The difference is that auto shipments are declining.
Arms sales brokered by the Pentagon rose to $11.8 billion in 1999 (the
latest figures available) from $10.3 billion in 1998 and $7.7 billion
in 1997. That does not include billions more in weapons sold directly
by U.S. makers to overseas buyers. Defense hardware licensed for
export in 1999 was valued at $18.5 billion, but the Federation of
American Scientists estimates that less than half the licensed amount
is actually sold in a given year.
In 1999 the State Department also licensed $28.4 billion in deals
involving the export of U.S. expertise in arms manufacturing or
operations. As with weapons exports, not all the licenses for
technical assistance are used.
The United States is the world's biggest weapons purveyor. Its $11.8
million in Pentagon-brokered sales for 1999 accounted for more than a
third of the $30.3 billion of comparable global sales for that year,
according to the Congressional Research Service, and a move by the
Bush administration to reduce weapons-export paperwork may set the
stage for a new spurt in sales.
Arms analysts express concern about all international weapons sales,
but are especially critical of U.S. munitions deals with nations that
have serious human rights problems.
"Governments with some of the worst human rights records have
received American weapons and training," and are undoubtedly
committing abuses using U.S.-supplied arms, says a new report by the
Council for a Livable World, an antiproliferation group in Washington.
U.S. government records reinforce that claim. The following list names
the top 15 U.S. arms customers among nations deemed by the State
Department to have human rights records that are "poor,"
"poor in some areas" or "generally poor," and
identifies those countries' worst abuses.
Collectively the countries committed thousands of summary executions,
beatings and tortures.
The sales figures, which include both completed Pentagon shipments and
commercial licenses that may not have resulted in a purchase, are from
Arms manufacturers and U.S. officials acknowledge that many buyers of
American weapons have poor human rights records. But they argue that
its role as weapons procurer gives Washington leverage to keep
oppressive regimes from behaving in even worse ways and that the
regimes could easily buy arms elsewhere.
Saudi Arabia. Value of U.S. arms purchased: $1.55 billion. U.S.
equipment: F-15 jet fighters; machine guns, ammunition; armored cars;
guided bombs; Hawk, Maverick, Patriot and TOW missiles. Types of
abuses: torture, beatings by religious and civil police; lack of
freedom of religion.
Algeria. Value: $288 million. Equipment: electronics components;
aircraft spare parts; explosives. Abuses: extrajudicial killings;
police beatings and torture; arbitrary arrest; denial of fair trial.
Venezuela. Value: $142 million. Equipment: F-16 fighter spare parts;
explosives; rifle cartridges; chemical agents and herbicides; armored
personnel carriers. Abuses: extrajudicial killings; police torture and
beatings; impunity for human rights offenders; arbitrary arrest .
Colombia. Value: $29 million. Equipment: aircraft parts; pistols;
grenade launchers; night vision goggles; riot control chemicals;
rifles; machine guns; missile parts. Abuses: extrajudicial killings;
disappearances; arbitrary arrest.
Rwanda. Value: $18 million. Equipment: radar components, parts.
Abuses: extrajudicial killings; deaths from harsh prison conditions;
disappearances; beatings; torture; arbitrary arrest.
Ecuador. Value: $14 million. Equipment: ammunition; aircraft parts;
pistols, revolvers and rifles; submachine guns; radio equipment;
chemical agents. Abuses: extrajudicial killings, torture and abuse by
police; impunity for human rights violators; arbitrary detention.
Peru. Value: $11 million. pistols, rifles, revolvers. Equipment:
ammunition; gyroscopes; riot control chemicals; A-37 training aircraft
parts; machine guns; electronics parts. Abuses: extrajudicial
killings; torture and beatings by police and military; arbitrary
Bosnia. Value: $7 million. Equipment: chemical agents and herbicides;
oxygen masks; electronics parts; communications equipment. Abuses:
torture and beatings; arbitrary arrest.
Dominican Republic. Value: $8 million. Equipment: herbicides; rifle
cartridges; helicopters; pistols, revolvers and rifles. Abuses:
extrajudicial killings, torture and beatings by police; arbitrary
Georgia. Value: $3 million. Equipment: rifles; patrol-boat components;
radios and other communications equipment. Abuses: poor prison
conditions; torture and beatings by security forces; arbitrary
Cameroon. Value: $3 million. Equipment: helmets; rifle and carbine
parts; C-130 transport aircraft parts; telescopes. Abuses:
extrajudicial killings; excessive use of force by police;
disappearances; widespread torture and beatings; arbitrary arrest;
life-threatening prison conditions.
Uzbekistan. Value: $3 million. Equipment: tactical radios/ TOW missile
spare parts. Abuses: torture, beatings; harsh prison conditions;
Uganda. Value: $2 million. Equipment: tactical radios; supply and
logistics operations; training. Abuses: extrajudicial killings by army
and police; ritual murders of children by rebels; beatings and torture
by security forces; arbitrary detention.
Ghana. Value: $2 million. Equipment: rifle cartridges; pistols and
revolvers; construction materials; training. Abuses: extrajudicial
killings; beatings; arbitrary detention.
Zambia. Value: $1 million. Equipment: miscellaneous boats; pistols and
revolvers; helicopter parts. Abuses: deaths caused by harsh prison
conditions; police beatings; arbitrary imprisonment
SOURCES: State Department, Defense Department, Council for a Livable
World, Congressional Research Service, Federation of American
Copyright (c) 2001, The Baltimore Sun