From email@example.com Fri Feb 16 07:08:28 2001
Date: Thu, 15 Feb 2001 19:49:09 -0800 (PST)
From: SAMUEL GOLDBERGER <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Fwd: Oil pipeline connected with Kosovo war?/U.S. may have to drop sa nctions/ Civilian pulled nuclear sub's lever in accident
----- Original Message -----
> Message-ID: <C1B90D1E2322D411A36800A0C9E11AF34B4662@mail.ccsu.edu>
Sadanand, Nanjundiah (Physics) <email@example.com>
Alewitz, Mike (Dept. of Art) <ALEWITZM@mail.ccsu.edu>
> Subject: Oil pipeline connected with Kosovo war?/U.S. may have to drop sa
> nctions/ Civilian pulled nuclear sub's lever in accident
> Date: Thu, 15 Feb 2001 10:45:27 -0500
Gordon Brown knows precisely what he should do about BP. The company's £10bn profits are crying out for a windfall tax. Royalties and petroleum revenue tax, both lifted when the oil price was low, are in urgent need of reinstatement. These measures would be popular and fair. But, as all political leaders are aware, you don't mess with Big Oil.
During the 1999 Balkans war, some of the critics of Nato's
intervention alleged that the western powers were seeking to secure a
passage for oil from the Caspian sea. This claim was widely
mocked. The foreign secretary Robin Cook observed that
there is no
oil in Kosovo. This was, of course, true but irrelevant. An
eminent commentator for this paper clinched his argument by recording
that the Caspian sea is
half a continent away, lodged between Iran
For the past few weeks, a freelance researcher called Keith Fisher has been doggedly documenting a project which has, as far as I can discover, has been little-reported in any British, European or American newspaper. It is called the Trans-Balkan pipeline, and it's due for approval at the end of next month. Its purpose is to secure a passage for oil from the Caspian sea.
The line will run from the Black sea port of Burgas to the Adriatic at Vlore, passing through Bulgaria, Macedonia and Albania. It is likely to become the main route to the west for the oil and gas now being extracted in central Asia. It will carry 750,000 barrels a day: a throughput, at current prices, of some $600m a month.
The project is necessary, according to a paper published by the US
Trade and Development Agency last May, because the oil coming from the
will quickly surpass the safe capacity of the Bosphorus
as a shipping lane. The scheme, the agency notes, will
a consistent source of crude oil to American refineries,
provide American companies with a key role in developing the vital
advance the privatisation aspirations of
the US government in the region and
integration of the Balkans
with western Europe.
In November 1998, Bill Richardson, then US energy secretary, spelt out
his policy on the extraction and transport of Caspian oil.
about America's energy security, he explained.
also about preventing strategic inroads by those who don't share
our values. We're trying to move these newly independent
countries toward the west.
We would like to see them reliant on western commercial and
political interests rather than going another way. We've made a
substantial political investment in the Caspian, and it's very
important to us that both the pipeline map and the politics come out
The project has been discussed for years. The US trade agency notes
that the Trans-Balkan pipeline
will become a part of the
region's critical east-west Corridor 8 infrastructure ... This
transportation corridor was approved by the transport ministers of the
European Union in April 1994. The pipeline itself, the agency
says, has also been formally supported
since 1994. The first
feasibility study, backed by the US, was conducted in 1996.
The pipeline does not pass through the former Yugoslavia, but
there's no question that it featured prominently in Balkan war
politics. On December 9 1998, the Albanian president attended a
meeting about the scheme in Sofia, and linked it inextricably to
It is my personal opinion, he noted,
solution confined within Serbian borders will bring lasting peace.
The message could scarcely have been blunter: if you want Albanian
consent for the Trans-Balkan pipeline, you had better wrest Kosovo out
of the hands of the Serbs.
In July 1993, a few months before the corridor project was first formally approved, the US sent peacekeeping troops to the Balkans. They were stationed not in the conflict zones in which civilians were being rounded up and killed, but on the northern borders of Macedonia. There were several good reasons for seeking to contain Serb expansionism, but we would be foolish to imagine that a putative $600m-a-month commercial operation did not number among them. The pipeline would have been impossible to finance while the Balkans were in turmoil.
I can't tell you that the war in the former Yugoslavia was fought solely in order to secure access to oil from new and biddable states in central Asia. But in the light of these findings, can anyone now claim that it was not?