The history of economic coercion to force submission

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The effecitveness and appropriate use of economic sanctions
Excerpt from testimony by Thea Lee, Assistant Director for International Economics, Public Policy Department, AFL-CIO before the Senate Task Force on Economic Sanctions, September 8, 1998, Progressive Response, 15 October 1998. No one disputes that unilateral economic sanctions are an essential policy tool, that should be applied judiciously, consistently, and effectively.
The role of U.S. sanctions policies in promoting human rights
Excerpts from testimony of Kenneth Roth, Executive Director, Human Rights Watch before the Senate Task Force on Economic Sanctions, 8 September 1998. Considerations for effective sanctions policies. Supported by domestic constituency in targeted country. Targeting; consistency with human rights; clear benchmarks; multilateral versus unilateral sanctions.
Sanctions as economic violence
By Roger Normand, The Progressive Response, 15 October 1998. There are a number of reasons why economic sanctions have become a favored foreign policy tool in the post-Cold War era. War may sometimes be a humane alternative to sanctions.
UN Official blasts Iraq sanctions: Women and children are the real victims
Transcript of British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) On-Line interview with Denis Halliday, The Progressive Response, 15 October 1998. The outgoing coordinator of the UN oil-for-food deal in Iraq, Denis Halliday, has launched a scathing attack on the policy of sanctions, branding them a totally bankrupt concept.
Sanctions, Genocide and War Crimes
A paper presented to the International Law Association on 29 February 2000 by Shuna Lennon, LLB. Considers the legality of the sanctions against Iraq in August and September 1990 of the Security Council. It is clear beyond doubt and acknowledged by the UN that but for the sanctions, there would be far less suffering and far fewer deaths among the civilian population.
The Siege of Iraq
By G. Simon Harak, Austin American-Statesman, Monday 20 March 2000. Sieges are designed to inflict such horrible suffering on the civilian population that their will to resist collapses. Siege warfare is making a comeback, coupled with sanctions, against Iraq.