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1Jeremy Baskin, Striking Back: a History of COSATU (Joh.: Ravan, 1991) p. 420. return

2lbid., pp. 420-1. return

3T. Gqubule, M. Malunga and M. Zondi, "The Rain Poured, But No One Cared," Weekly Mail 12 Feb. 1990. return

4Cape Times, Argus, Weekly Mail 12 Feb. 1990. Gibson Tshabalala, owner of the Little Soweto shebeen reported RI,000 sales of alcohol in one night of celebration; Weekly Mail 12 Feb. 1990. return

5Daily Despatch, Star 13 Feb. 1990; J. Paffitt, "Release of Mandela: Workers Respond in the Eastern Cape," in South African Labour Bulletin [hereafter SALB ]v. 14 no. 7 Mar. 1990. return

6Citizen 12 Feb. 1990; L. Mondi, "Mandela Release: Workers Celebrate," SALB v. 14 no. 7 Mar. 1990; Argus 13 Feb. 1990. return

7L. Mondi, op.cit. return

8Baskin, op.cit., p. 421. It was built in only four days with only 9 faults, as opposed to the average Mercedes at the plant taking 14 days with 68 faults. return

9Business Day 12Feb. 1990; Wall Street Journal cited in Pretoria News 14 Feb. 1990; Mandela Comes Home (Cape Town: South African Pressclips, 1990). return

10The ANC "remained largely an instrument of the middle class": S. Johns, "Trade Union, Political Pressure Group, or Mass Movement?: the Industrial & Commercial Workers' Union", in R.I. Rotberg & A. Mazrui (eds.), Protest & Power in Black Africa (N.Y.: OUP, 1970), pp. 695-754. p. 699; was "petit bourgeois," and drew leaders in the 30's from the "new 'middle class' ": P. Walshe, The Rise of African Nationalism in South Africa: the African National Congress 1912-1952 (London: Hurst, 1971), pp. 73, 83, 243; P. Limb, Worker-Nationalists, Nationalist-Workers, or Just Plain Workers? The ANC & Black Workers in South Africa, 1940-55 paper to AFSAAP Conference Making Peace in Rapidly Changing Africa, University of WA, Dec. 1991. In defining working class I follow H. Braverman, Labor & Monopoly Capital (New York : Monthly Review, 1974) who stresses the employee relationship rather than gradations of income or status. return

11T. Lodge "Charters from the Past: the ANC & its Historiographical Traditions," Radical History Review (RHR) no. 46/7 1990, pp. 161-188, p. 161; A. Odendaal, Vukani Bantu (Cape Town: Philip, 1984); P. Bonner,"The Transvaal Native Congress 1917-1920: the Radicalization of the Black Petty Bourgeoisie on the Rand," Africa Perspective no. 20 1982, pp. 41-52; H. Bradford, A Taste of Freedom (New Haven: Yale U.P., 1987). return

12J. Lonsdale, "Some Origins of Nationalism in East Africa," Journal of African History v. 9 no. 1 1968, pp. 119-46. Links between "primary" and "secondary" forms of resistance are appreciated in the "continuity in mass emotion as well as for continuity in elite leadership"; T.O. Ranger, "Connections Between 'Primary Resistance' Movements and Modern Mass Nationalism in East and Central Africa," ibid. v. 9 no. 3/4 1968, pp. 437-53 and 631-41. return

13E. J. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780 (CUP, 1990), pp. 5-11, 125 argues analysis "from below" can show how common people influence or perceive nationalism. Viewed thus, nationalism is not some monolith divorced from working strata, but a complicated mass of social relations and ideas which may not unnaturally find a home amongst them. Anderson's idea of nationalist "cultural artefacts," made "modular," helps conceptualise an imagined community, yet has been deemed by Chatteijee as the colonial world merely adopting European-style nationalism. Ari Sitas argues that merely positing class bases of worker-nationalist alliances is inadequate to understand variations : B. Anderson, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1983) pp. 13-15, 137; P. Chatterjee, Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World (London: Zed, 1986), pp.18-21, 168-9; A. Sitas, "Class, Nation, Ethnicity in Natal's Black Urban Working Class," Societies of Southern Africa no. 38 1990, pp. 257-78. return

14P. James, "The Janus Faces of History: Cleaving Marxist Theories of nation and Nationalism," Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism v. 18 no. 1/2 1991, pp. 13-24. p. 20. return

15D. Williams, "African Nationalism in South Africa: Origins and Problems, JAH v. 11 no. 3 1970 p. 382. Tiyo Soga refers to a Xhosa-language newspaper as a "national" paper; T. Soga, "Ipepepa le-Ndaha Zasekaya," Indaba v. 1 no. 1 Aug. 1862, trans. in T. Soga, The Journal and Selected Writings of the Reverend Tiyo Soga (Cape Town: Balkema, 1983) p.151. Etherington is dealing with elites, although he notes the work of James Coleman on rank and file African church members; N. Etherington. "Mission Station Melting Pots as a Factor in the Rise of South African Black Nationalism," International Journal of African Historical Studies v. 9 no. 4 1976, pp. 592-605; idem, Preachers, Peasants and Politics in Southeast Africa, 1875-1880 (London: Royal Historical Society. 1978). return

16W. Beinart,"Worker Consciousness, Ethnic Particularism and Nationalism: the Experience of a South African Migrant, 1930-1960," in S. Marks & S. Trapido, (eds.), The Politics of Race, Class & Nationalism in Twentieth Century South Africa (London: Longman, 1987) pp. 286-309, p. 306 ; T.D. Moodie, "The Moral Economy of the Black Miners' Strike of 1946," Journal of Southern African Studies (JSAS), v.13 1986, pp. 1-35 & P. Delius, "Sebatakgomo; Migrant Organisation, the ANC & the Sekhukhuneland Revolt," ibid., v. 15 1989, pp. 581-616, though Basil Sansom feels levels of migrant worker urban cohesion may have been exaggerated; B. Sansom, "Song and Political Opposition in Sekhukhuneland, 1961-62" Anthropological Forum v. 6 no. 3 1991, pp. 395-428. return

17Marks & Trapido, "Introduction," in Marks & Trapido, op.cit., pp. 2-4, 36-7, 45-46. They paint ANC actions in the 1940's as dominated by "urban-based intelligentsia" without offering a precise definition of this stratum. return

18N. Cope, "The Zulu Petit Bourgeoisie and Zulu Nationalism in the 1920's: Origins of Inkatha," JSAS v. 16 no. 3 1990, pp. 431-51. pp.439, 451; A. Cobley, "On the Shoulders of Giants": the Black Petty Bourgeoisie in Politics & Society in South Africa, 1924 to 1950 Ph.D. SOAS, University of London, 1986, passim. (published in 1990). L. Dreyer, The Modern African Elite of South Africa (London: Macmillan, 1989), speaks of elites wielding social power in positions of authority and comprising a collective African social elite in the mid-1980's, but the depth of elitism amongst working elites is problematic because they are not permanently rooted in the bourgeoisie, or petit bourgeoisie, and because they can just as easily form a component of non-elitist strata, such as wage earners. return

19Sitas, op.cit. (1990), pp. 265-9. return

20An example of diversity was the widely varying reviews of the Simons' work in Sechaba in 1970. Joe Matthews noted "unless Africans . . . with an intimate knowledge of the linguistic, cultural and other characteristics . . . start . . . writing their own history we are unlikely to get much satisfaction,": J. Matthews, "Problems of South African History," Sechaba v. 4 no. 1 Jan. 1970, pp. 22-3. Michael Harmel, in February, from the vista of class, claimed a "lack of historical perspective," and a third reviewer in March felt it showed the primary colonial contradiction. return

21F. Johnstone, "The Labour History of the Witwatersrand in the Context of South African Studies, and with Reflections on the New School," Social Dynamics v. 4 no. 2 1978, pp. 101-8, p. 101; D. Hemson, "Trade Unionism and the Struggle for Liberation in South Africa," Capital and Class, v.6 1976, pp.1-41. D. Mason, "Industrialisation, Race and Class Conflict in South Africa: Towards a Sociological Resolution of a Re-Opened Debate," Ethnic and Racial Studies v. 3 no. 2 1980, pp. 140-155, notes many radicals offer a rather passive view of classes as either victims or instigators of state policy; W. Worger, "White Radical History in South Africa," SAHJ, v. 24 1991. pp. 145-153, p. 148. return

22R. Cohen, Y. Muthien and A. Zegeye, "Introduction," in R. Cohen, Y. Muthien and A. Zegeye, (eds.) Repression and Resistance: InsiderAccounts of Apartheid (London: Zell, 1990) pp. 1-16, pp. 3-5. return

23B. Bozzoli, with the assistance of M. Nkotsoe, Women of Phokeng (London: Currey, 1991), pp. 239-41. return

24D. Denoon, "Open and Closed Histories," Australi,an Historical Studies v. 24 no. 95 1990, pp. 175-188, p. 176. "Closed" refers to studies focussed upon a limited vista; "open" to those more compartive/interdisciplinary. return

25W. Beinart, "Cape Workers in German South-West Africa, 1904-1912: Patterns of Migrancy and the Closing of Options on the Southern African Labour Market," Institute of Commonwealth Studies Societies of Southern Africa in the 19th & 20th Centuries no. 27 1981, pp. 48-65 ; K. Gottshalk, "South African Labour Policy in Narnibia 1915-1975," SALB v. 4 no. 1/2 1978, pp.75-106; M. Nyagumbo, With the People (London: Busby, 1980) ch.7. return

26J. Penvenne, A History of African Labor in Lourenço, Mozambique, 1988 to 1950, Ph.D. Boston University 1982, pp. 340-347, 376,447-64: the quote is from Os Simples 13 July 1911. Dick Khosa, an 1CU supporter. wrote articles in the Maputo press in 1929, on shibalo (forced labour) and Kadatie. return

27T. Sideris, "Recording Living memory in South Africa: the Need for Oral History in South Africa," Critical Arts v. 4 no. 2 1986, pp. 41-53; P. la Hausse, "Oral History & South African Historians," Radical History Review, no. 46/7, pp. 346-56; I. Hofmeyr, "No Chief, No Exchange, No Story" African Studies v.48 no.2 1985 pp. 131-55; A. Manson, D. Cachalia, & C. Sideris, "Oral History Speaks Out," Social Dynamics v.11 no. 2 1985, pp. 1-12; A. Sitas, "Moral Formations & Struggles amongst Migrant Workers on the East Rand," Labour, Capital & Society, v. 18 no. 2 1985, pp. 372-401; P.N. Thuynsma, The Oral Tradition in Southern African Literature Ph.D. University of Denver 1980, pp. 203-5; E. Gunner, "A Dying Tradition? African Oral Tradition in a Contemporary Context," Social Dynamics v.12 no.2 1986, pp.31-38, p.31; R. Lambert, Political Unionism in South Africa: SACTU 1955-1965, Ph.D. Univ. Witwatersrand 1988, pp. 518-33. return

28Interview with Stephen Diamini, Lusaka May 1989. return

29P. Seme, "The Regeneration of Africa," in A. & M. McLeod (eds.), Representative South African Speeches (Mysore: Mysore Univ., 1980), pp. 99-101; K.A. Jordaan, "A Critique of Mr W.P. van Schoor's The Origin and Development of Segregation in South Africa" Discussion v. 1/3 1951, pp. 13-38, p. 13. return

30J. Peires, The House of Phalo (Joh.: Ravan, 1981), pp. 176-7, citing Mqhayi's Ityala lamaWele (Lovedale Press, 1931); S.M. Molema, The Bantu, Past and Present (Edinburgh: Green, 1920); J.H. Soga, The South-Eastern Bantu (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand U.P., 1930) and The Ama-Xhosa (Lovedale Press, 1931); Solomon T. Plaatje, 1876-1932 ed. T. Couzens & B. Willan, special issue of English in Africa v. 3 no. 2 1976. B. Bozzoli and P. Delius,"Radical History and South African Society," RHR no. 46/7 1990, pp. 13-46, p. 16 note stultifying repression, exclusion from university education and libraries or exile, "helped ensure that the genres of autobiography, fiction, journalism, photography and historical fiction have been the most common means through which the black intelligentsia has found its voice." return

31M.M. Fuze, The Black People, and Whence They Came: a Zulu View (Pietermaritzburg: Univ. Natal Pr., 1979; 1st pub. Zulu 1922 - written early 1900's), pp. viii, 100, 140. John Dube, Dhlomo, B.W. Vilikazi and M.B. Yengwa and A.C. Jordan probed historical themes, but according to Yengwa "their characters are those of the mine boy, baffled and afterwards corrupted by city life. They have not yet characterised a Mandela, educated, independent and politically victimued"; M.B. Yengwa, "Zulu Writing," Fighting Talk May 1957. The importance of such alternative writers is stressed by Ng-ug-i wa Thiong'o, Decolonizing the Mind: the Politics of Language in African Literature (London: Currey, 1986), pp. 16, 22. return

32J. Starfield," 'Not Quite History': the Autobiographies of H. Selby Msimang and R.V. Selope Thema and the Writing of South African History," Social Dynamics v. 14 no. 2 1988, pp. 16-35; H. Selby Msimang, Autobiography, unpublished Ms., Mss.380077, SOAS; Abantu-Batho, passim; Z.K. Matthews, Freedom for My People (London: Collings, 1981); J. Calata, A History of the ANC mimeo [1957?]. return

33A. Bird, "The Adult Night School Movements for Blacks on the Witwatersrand 1920-1980," in P. Kallaway (ed.), Apartheid and Education (Joh.: Ravan, 1984), pp. 192-221; black literacy was estimated to be only 9.9% in 1921, and 25% in 1936 ; E. Roux, Time Longer than Rope (1948), p. 343; E.Rosenthal, Bantu Journalism in South Africa (Joh.: Society of the Friends of Africa, [1949?]), pp. 13-14; A. Friedgut, "The Non-European Press," in E. Hellmann, Handbook on Race Relations in South Africa (Cape Town: OUP, 1949), pp.484-510; P. Morris, "The Early Black South African Newspaper and the Development of the Novel," Journal of Commonwealth Literature v. 15 no.1 1980, pp. 15-29; L. Switzer, "Bantu World & the Origins of a Captive African Commercial Press in South Africa," JSAS v. 14 no. 3 1988, pp. 351-70. return

34B. Willan, "Sol Plaatje, De Beers and an Old Tram Shed: Class Relations and Social control in a South African Town, 1918-1919," JSAS v. 4 1978, pp. 195-215; B. Willan, Sol Plaatje: South African Nationalist 1876-1932 (London: Heinemann, 1984) pp. 218-224. return

35Solomon T. Plaatje, 1876-1932 op.cit.; T. Couzens, "Sol T. Plaatje and the First South African Epic," English in Africa v. 14 no. 1 1987, pp. 41-66 notes Plaatje's Mhudi was an epic (a literary form tending to be associated with the rise of nationalism) that may well have had its origins in Congress opposition to the 1913 Land Act; "The Amalaita Bands: Some Criticism of the Native Police," Pretoria News 3 Feb. 1911, in Couzens and Willan, op. cit.; S. Plaatje, The Mote and the Beam (New York: Youngs, 1921), pp. 86-91 and "Native Life at the Alluvial Diggings," Daily Dispatch 7 May 1927; "Homeless! Landless! Outlawed! The Plight of South African Natives: Interview with Solomon Plaatje," Labour Leader all in ibid. His sensitivity to the plight of black women in The Mote and the Beam was all the more interesting in that he chose to illustrate his arguments with reference to the dilemmas of a Zulu domestic servant, and speak of whites "grown wealt="return" align"top">hy on . . . ill-requited black labour." return

36C. Saunders,"Radical History - the Wits Workshop Version - Reviewed," SAHJ v. 24 1991, pp. 160-165, p. 163; Commissioner. of Police to Sec. of Justice re Movements of Plaatje, 1 Nov. 1923, and attendance at ANC meetings in Dec. 1923; Dept. of Justice files, J269 3/1064/18 and C.259/20 of 22/12/23, in Southern Africa Research Papers, Press Cuttings, Memorandum & Miscellaneous Correspondence Covering 1913-79 CSAS, Borthwick Institute, York University [hereafter SOU/1] file 6. return

37B. Willan, op.cit. (1984); D.D. Bruce, "The Ironic Conception of American History : the Early Black Historians, 1883-1915," Journal of Negro History v. 69 no. 2 1984, pp. 53-62. return

38"The Black Bolshevik Factory," and "The Compound Induna and Compound Interest," Sjambok 7 Mar. and 25 Apr. 1930, and T. Couzens, "Introduction," in R.R.R. Dhlomo: 20 Stories special issue English in Africa v.2 no. 1 1975, pp. 1-5, 61-5; H.I.E. Dhlomo, "R.R.R. Dhlomo," Inkundla ya Bantu 2nd. fortnight, Aug. 1946; A. JanMohammed, Alex La Guma: the Literary and Political Functions of Marginality in the Colonial Situation (Boston: African Studies Center, Boston Univ., 1982); N. Rasebotsa, Politics and Literature: the Novels of Alex La Guma M.A. Univ. of Guelph, 1979, p. 69; M. Wade, "South Africa's First Proletarian Writer," in K. Parker (ed.), The South African Novel in English (New York: Africana Pub., 1978) pp. 95-113 ; J.-P. Wade, "Song of the City and Mine Boy; the 'Marxist' Novels of Peter Abrabams," Research in African Literatures v. 21 1990, pp. 89-101; J. Peires, "Lovedale Press: Literature for the Bantu Revisited," English in Africa v. 7 no. 1 1980, pp. 71-85. return

39"Native Labour," Izwi Labantu [SOAS] 16 Mar., 8 Feb. 1909. Odendaal, op. cit., pp. 21, 41, 69, 95 (citing Izwi Labantu 1 May 1906). Soga met the radical Afro-American sea captain Harry Dean; H. Dean, Umbala (London: Pluto, 1929, repr. 1989), pp. 90, 244. Cf. Molema, op. cit. pp. 302, 304, 254, 256 for similar views. return

40Letter of J.D. Kumalo and ten others, of the Germiston Native Vigilance Association to J. Chamberlain, 8 Jan. 1903, SNA 21/191/1903, in SOU/1 file 6; Odendaal, op. cit. p. 248. Moderate ANC leaders, such as foundation member Walt="return" align"top">er Rubusana, later to oppose the ICU, sought the end of passes "savouring of class distinction" and by doing so objectively articulated worker interests; South African Native Races Committee. The Natives of South Africa (London: Murray, 1901), p.297; "Dr. Walter B. Rubusana - 'Umcir Omkhulu' "Imvo Zabantsundu 26 Aug. 1961; letter to J. Harris, Aboriginal Protection Society, 17 Jan. 1917, SOAS Ms. 380264 Letters of W.B. Rubusana 1910-22; G.F. Baines, The Port Elizabeth Disturbances of October 1920 M.A. Rhodes University 1988. return

41T. Mweli Skota [ed.], The African Yearly Register (Joh.: Esson, 1931), pp. 70-1, 137, 175, 257, 273, 277, 283; Willan, op.cit. (1984), ch. 2; "Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje: First ANC Secretary General (1876-1932)," Sechaba Dec. 1981; discussion with W. Sisulu, 1991; A.B. Xuma, unpub. Autobiography, Xuma Papers; Odendaal, op. cit, pp. 277, 281. On the CPNA see Kinkead-Weekes, Africans in Cape Town: the Origins & Development of State Policy & Popular Resistance to 1936 M.Soc. Sc. UCT 1985, p. 205. return

42F. Meli, South Africa Belongs to Us: a History of the ANC (Harare: Zimbabwe Pub. House, 1988) p. 37; P. Seme, "Native Union," Imvo Zabantsundu 24 Oct. 1911; E. Friedland, "''The South African Freedom Movement: Factors Influencing its Ideological Development,1912-l980s," Journal of Black Studies v.13 no.3 1983, pp. 337-54, p. 339 Walshe, op.cit.,; I.I. Potekhin, The Formation of the South African Bantu into a National Community (Moscow: 1956, in Russian), transl. of chap.12, p. 13 by P. Duncan Jnr. to B. Pogrund, 18/6/58, in South Africa: a Collection of Political Materials reel 7. See Meli (1988) p. 209 for a list of ANC office bearers; address, 6 May 1919, in T. Karis and G. Carter (eds.), From Protest to Challenge (Stanford: Stanford UP, 1972) v. 1, p. 107 (emphasis added); copy of leaflet enclosed in a letter of Deputy Commissioner, CID to SAP "Bolshevism on the Rand amongst Natives," July 1919, in Dept. Justice Files selected by R. Edgar. return

43E. Roux, "Active & Passive Resistance," Viewpoints & Perspectives, v. 1 no. 11953, pp. 1-12 (1953), p. 3. return

44E. Mphahlele, "Black Teachers in South Africa: Organising Under Adversity," Africa Today no. 4 1981, pp. 31-2; Meli, op cit. pp. 2, 6, 36. Interestingly two of the most detailed analyses of the ANC, by Walshe and Meli, both acknowledge the role of workers in the ANC, especially from the late 1940's. Walshe sees the relationship as uneven and contradictory, Meli stresses the common aims. return

45T. Lodge "Charters from the Past: the African National Congress & its Historiographical Traditions," Radical History Review, no. 46/7 1990, pp. 161-188 ; T. Lodge, Review of South Africa Belongs to Us, in Weekly Mail 9 Sept. 1988; Meli, op.cit.; Lodge, op.cit. (1990) p. 179 ; Meli, op.cit. (1988), pp. viii-ix, 38, 43-45; F. Meli, "South Africa's Colonialism of a Special Type," in L. Rathmann et al (eds.) Colonialism, Neocolonialism and Africa's Path to a Peaceful Future (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1986), pp. 67-69; Meli, op. cit. (1988), pp. ix-xi. In his preface Meli criticises Lodge for failing to prove statements about the "middle class respectability of the Tambo leadership," and Lodge is clearly continuing the polemic. return

46T.M.T. Dube,"Literature on African Resistance to Domination in South Africa: 1910-1966," A Current Bibliography on African Affairs v.7 no.2 1974, pp.156-168, p. 157, 163; idem A Study of African Reaction to Apartheid 1910-1966, M.A. University of Chicago 1972. return

47Short of actually joining the ANC, and immersing oneself in its affairs, like the anthropologist Wim van Binsbergen who became a sangoma complete with leopard skin and dreaming, I have endeavoured in this section to draw on internal ANC sources wherever possible; W. van Binsbergen, "Becoming a Sangoma." Journal of Religion in Africa v. 21 fasc. 4 Nov. 1991, pp. 309-44. return

48G. Bartlett, Minister of Mineral and Energy Affairs on the "ANC-SACP Marxist alliance"; Star 11 Sept. 1991; Dr. "No" Andries Treunicht interviewed by Aggrey KIaaste, in Vrye Weekblad-Sowetan Quarterly State of the Nation Report Dec. 1991. Added to this, nationalism has re-entered the debate between ANC writers and Afrikaners: see the exchange in Die Suid-Afrikuan of February 1988 between Pallo Jordan and Hermann Giliomee, noted in A. Sparks The Afrikaners: Their Last Great Trek (London: Macmillan, 1989), pp. 246-9. return

49Editorial, SALB V. 16 no. 2 Oct./Nov. 1991, p. 1 (see also J. Saul, "South Africa: Between 'Barbarism' and 'Structural Reform,"' New Left Review no. 188 July/Aug. 1991, pp. 3-44, p. 20-1 and B. Molapo, "Manufacturing a Reformist ANC," African Communist 2nd. quarter 1991, pp. 14-21, who, whilst concentrating on such ideas outside of the ANC, also notes anti-mass action ideas inside Congress); Shaun Johnson, Star 4 Mar. 1992. Gavin Evans in Weekly Mail 14 Feb. 1992 similarly refers to "growing convergence" as does Tony Leon, Star 11 Sept. 1991. return

50L.A. Gordon, and E.V. KIopov, "The Workers' Movement in a Possible Postsocialist Perspective," Sociological Research v. 31 no. 1 Jan-Feb. 1992, pp. 30-55, p. 40. return

51S. Johnson, "A GovL Waits in the Wings," Star 21 Aug. 1991. The CIA has deemed the NWC sufficiently important to issue a guide: The ANC's National Working Committee: a reference Aid (Washington: CIA, [1991]). return

52S. Gastrow, Who's Who in South African Politics 3rd. rev. ed. (London : Zell, 1990), pp. 289-92. New leader of NUM is Kgalema Motlanthe, gaoled for ten years on Robben Island, and chair of the ANC Witwatersrand region; Weekly Mail 31 Jan. 1992. Speaking with Ramaphosa a few months before the July ANC conference that was to elect him Secretary General, I was struck by his eloquence and firmness of principle, blended with a strong unionism and a flexibility perhaps gained in the Black Consciousness and student movements; interview, Tribune (Sydney) 3 Apr. 1991. His earlier commitment to the Freedom Charter can be seen in SALB V. 12 no. 4 May 1987, pp. 45-55. return

53Age 29 May 1991; Tim Dauth, Towards the National Democratic Revolution: Socialism and the African National Congress of South Africa since Morogoro, 1969-1992 Hon. thesis History Dept., Univ. of WA, 1992, pp. 69-80. John Gomomo, a shop steward and ANC/SACP leader is another high placed rank and filer. Dauth (p. 80) sees the urgency of democratic tasks inducing postponement of serious discussion of socialism in the ANC but class forces subtly assert themselves; R. Mofokeng, address to ANC dinner, Perth May 1991; "Chris Dlamini," New Nation 17 Jan. 1992, idem "A South African Communist Speaks," Work in Progress (WiP) no. 68 Aug. 1990. return

54See for instance, the various works of Baruch Hirson; R. Fine, Beyond Apartheid : Labour and Liberation in South Africa (London: Pluto, cl990); Inqaba ya Basebensi: Journal of the Marxist Workers' Tendency [MWT] of the African National Congress; P. Storey [pseud.], "Bigger Storms Brewing Over South Africa," Inqaba ya Basebenzi no. 27 Nov. 1988, p. 6; interview with MWT in African Communist 2nd. quarter 1991. return

55J. Slovo, "Has Socialism Failed?" SALB V. 14 no. 6 1989, pp. 11-28 "South Africa: the Party Faithful," Africa Confidential v. 31 no. 112 Jan. 1990; Z. Pallo Jordan, "The Crisis of Conscience in the SACP," Transformation (Durban) no. 11 1990, pp. 75-89; idem, "The ChalIenges That Face South African Socialists," New Nation 17 Jan. 1992. Jordan identifies most strongly with an "Independent and New Left" approach; SACP. "The SACP and COSATU Meet: a Personal View," Umsebenzi v. 6 no. 2 1990, pp. 10-11 noted that in 1990 the SACP declared it had "re-learnt" many lessons from non-party members of COSAW. return

56SACP. Building Workers' Power for Democratic Change: Manifesto of the SACP (Joh.: Umsebenzi Pub., Jan. 1992), pp. 1-2, 6, 10-12. It suggests the "formal, constitutional basis of [CST] is likely to be dismantled. But . . . [its] effects . . . will not evaporate because there is a new constitution"; p.16. Veteran Jack Simons has alluded to the need to discard lame analogies in the concept of CST; "CST: Is It a Lame Concept?" Umsebenzi v. 7 no. 1 Feb. 1991, p. 17; Constitution of the SACP, adopted at the 8th Party Congress ([Joh.]: SACP, Jan, 1992), pp. 1-3. return

57David Everett, "Alliance Politics of a Special Type: the Roots of the ANC/SACP Alliance, 1950-1954," JSAS v. 18 no. 1 Mar. 1992, pp. 19-39; Stephen Ellis, & T. Sechaba [pseud.], Comrades Against Apartheid: the ANC and SACP in Exile (London: Currey, 1992). Ellis, whilst raising genuine issues of dissent, presents his case in a most unverifiable manner, and my own interviews with an ex-MK veteran raise questions of factual errors. Ellis recently claimed the ANC was likely to regain its "independence" from the SACP, whose "new acceptance of multi-party democracy has deprived it of its revolutionary zeal." Joe Slovo, however, debunks the Ellis thesis of SACP total domination of the ANC in exile (through Soviet aid) by reference to Soviet aid achieved by SWAPO without recourse to communists, adding the ANC and SACP have no immediate differences and should field a common list of candidates in an election, although "divergence on socioeconomic issues further down the line" is possible; Star 8 Apr. 1992. Operation Vula was the classic "reds under the beds" gambit aimed at severing the Alliance. return

58Business Day 8 Apr. 1992. A recent survey found a [unknown quantity] sample of blacks indicated low SACP electoral support but "were 'on balance' neutral" on the ANC/SACP as separate organisations; Star 8 Apr. 1992. return

59C. Hani, "Putting the Party Before Party," Star 18 Dec. 1991. Hani was nominated by more tIlan 400 delegates representing 25,000 members as the sole candidate to succeed Slovo; Zisa Factsheet 13 Dec. 1991. return

60C. Diamini, "A South African Communist Speaks," Work in Progress [WIP] no. 68 Aug. 1990, pp. 4-6. return

61Zisa Factsheet 13 Dec. 1991; "National Stayaway," Zisa background paper 15 Nov. 1991: "To some . . . these developments spelt the end of the ANC-COSATU alliance. This is. . . one of the myths many white South Africans . . . feed themselves . . . namely that ANC unity will not hold . . . Those who believe that the ANC cannot hold its allies together forget . . . the powerful effect apartheid . . . has in uniting its opponents against it despite their differences... Significantly the same COSATU congress that brought worker criticism of the alliance to a head, also gave birth to the VAT initiative which could enable COSATU to assert itself forcefully within the alliance." [The ANC NEC is composed of 50 elected positions and all regional chairpersons and secretaries as ex-officio members - such as Kgalema Motlanthe, elected as a PWV leader. One must also count the union links of "old guard" leaders such as Sisulu, Nkadimeng, Gwala, and others]; S. Mufamadi, "The Challenges Facing COSATU," Mayibuye July 1991. See also [COSATU] Assessment of the Current Situation [1990], mimeo. return

62J. Saul, "South Africa: Between 'Barbarism' & 'Structural Reform,"' New Left Review no. 188 July/Aug. 1991, pp. 3-44, p. 42. return

63K. Lambert & E. Webster, The Re-emergence of Political Unionism in Contemporary South Africa?" in W. Cobbett & R. Cohen (eds.), Popular Struggles in South Africa (London: Currey, 1988), pp. 20-41; strikes rose from 389 in 1985 to 793 in 1986 and 1,148 in 1987: E.K. Dumor, Ghana, OAU and Southern Africa (Accra: Ghana Univ. Pr., 1991), p. 235. return

64New Nation 13 Apr. 1989; T. Gqubule, "Day 50 for the Longest Strike in Mine History," Weekly Mail 21 Apr. 1989 ;P. Limb, Workers, the ANC, & the Politics of Change in South Africa: the Connection Between Class, Ethnicity & Democratic Politics in Apartheid's Segmented Labour Market, paper to AFSAAP Conference, Deakin University Nov. 1990; interviews with J. Niadimeng and S. Dlamini, Lusaka May 1989. The other main union federation, NACTU, maintains non-alignment with parties but has historical ties with the PAC and AZAPO; C. Ngcukana, "NACTU: Restructuring to Meet the Future," SALB v. 16 no. 2 Oct./Nov. 1991, pp. 48-50. return

65What is COSATU? (Joh.: COSATU, 1991); G. Schreiner [NUMSA national organiser] transcript of an address to a meeting at CMEU Perth 20 May 1991; COSATU 3rd National Congress. Bi-Annual Report (1989). return

66"NLM or Political Party?" Mayibuye Aug. 1991; ANC. People's Power for a Democratic Future [video]; Saul, op.cit. p. 43 notes the vigour of self-criticism makes evaluation of likely post-apartheid leadership directions more difficult to chart; Weekly Mail 23 Sept. 1990; R. Omar interview with Sheila Suttner, Viva v. 1 no. 2 June 1991. return

67D. Hirschmann, "Of Monsters and Devils, Analyses and alternatives: Changing Black South African Perceptions of Capitalism and Socialism," African Affairs v. 89 1990, pp. 341-69; R. Lambert, Trade Union Politics in Contemporary South Africa (Nedlands: Univ. of WA, Dept. of Industrial Relations, 1990); A. Marx, "South African Black Trade Unions as an Emerging Working Class Movement," Journal of Modern African Studies [JMAS] v. 27 1989, pp. 383-400; Limb, op.cit. (1990). return

68ANC. [Final Draft as Adopted] 1990 ANC National Consultative Conference, mimeo; N. Mandela, Keynote Address of Comrade Nelson R. Mandela . . . [at] National Consultative Conference. December 14 1990, mimeo. return

69Business Day 20 Mar. 1992; Citizen 20 Mar. 1992; ANC. ANC 1992/1 993 Budget Review : The Last Apartheid Budget . . . mimeo, [1992], which formed the basis for Mandela's comments, and called for state intervention to create jobs; "Tensions Offstage Herald Development of Fresh Strategies in ANC-Unions," Southscan 19 Apr. 1991. In this case Moses Mayekiso and Cyril Ramaphosa represented the different camps; ANC. DepL of Political Education. Should White Democrats Vote in the Referendum? (Discussion Paper; no. 4). return

70R. Suttner, [Input to Johannesburg Activist Forum 17 March 1990, amended for Western Cape Workshop 30 March 1990] p. 9; idem. Keynote Address to SANSO/NUSAS National Workshop, 12 Apr. 1990, mimeo, p. 1; R. Kasrils, The Struggle Beyond the Negotiating Table transcript of speech to ANC/UDF activists, 26 June 1990. return

71For example: "Health and Safety: the Dangers Workers Face,"; "Drought: Farmworkers Suffer Most," Mayibuye Apr. 1992; Year of Democratic Elections for a Constituent Assembly : Statement of the NEC on the Occasion of the 80th Anniversary of the ANC, Jan. 8 1992, pp. 2-3 (see also Freedom, Democracy and Peace! Statement of the NEC . . . January 8 1990 (Lusaka: ANC, [1990]), p. 6. An idea of internal ideas promoted in the ANC can be gleaned from documents of its Department of Political Education such as The ANC and its Relationship to Civics (Dec. 1991) and Which Way to a Democratic Constitution? (Nov. 1991). On the still small representation of women in ANC and COSATU leaderships see: P. Horn, "ANC 48th National Conference," and L. Lingishi, "COSATU Congress - the Women's Issue Debate," Agenda no. 11 1991, pp. 15-18, 19. return

72See Mayibuye Apr. 1992; Star 19 Feb. 1 Apr. 1992; cf. S. Zikalala, "PWV Protest Stayaway Fails," SALB OcL 1991, pp. 9-10; J. Naidoo, "National General Strike," ibid. pp. 13-17; F. Haffajee, "New Act Gives Pickets the Kentucky Blues," Weekly Mail 14 Feb. 1992; "National Stayaway," Zisa background paper (Cold Comfort Farm Trust, Zimbabwe Institute on Southern Africa) 15 Nov. 1991. return

73COSATU re-stated its support for "a democratic socialist society," and Naidoo demanded government participation in the National Economic Negotiating Forum, failing which a general strike will be called in June; Star 1 Apr. 1992; Business Day 31 Mar. 1992; Dirk Hartford, "Cosatu's Economic Policy," Business Day 26 Mar. 1992; Zisa factsheet 11 Oct. 1991; ANC Press Statement on the Question of VAT [copy of fax 30 Sept. 1991] stated its full support for "very reasonable proposals" of the 104 organisation-backed Co-Ordinating Committee on VAT. return

74Interview SALB v. 16 no. 2 Oct./Nov. 1991, pp. 13-17, p. 17; WIP no. 79 Dec. 1991, p. 18-19. His earlier interviews confirm his support for the Freedom Charter and UDF/ANC; e.g. New Nation 1 Dec. 1988. return

75"National Stayaway," Zisa background paper 15 Nov. 1991; "Workers in the transitional period," Mayibuye Sept. 1991: "while COSATU's draft proposals [on economic restructuring] do tally with those of the ANC, it is necessary that workers themselves should campaign vigorously"; "Should COSATU Participate in CODES A," Mayibuye Mar. 1992; D. Forrest, "'Soft' ANC Line Under Fire," Weekly Mail 6 Mar. 1992. Earlier, COSATU Assistant-Secretary Sam Shilowa stated "as long as [CODES A] remains restricted to political organisations, there may be justification for our exclusion"; "Role of Organised Labour," New Nation 17 Jan. 1992. return

76F. Haffajee, "Young Turks Bring New Ideas," Weekly Mail 10 Apr. 1992; "Ecodesa: Can it deliver?" Mayibuye Mar. 1992; Limb, op.cit. (1989); cf. "Debating Nationalisation," Mayibuye Feb. 1991; "Building a Mixed Economy," Mayibuye July 1991; "Redistribution Strategies," Mayibuye Mar. 1991; "The Economy beyond Apartheid," New Nation 15 June 1991; ANC. Draft Resolution on ANC Economic Policy for National Conference [internal] [May 1991]; UN. Centre Against Apartheid. Discussion Document on Economic Policy of the ANC of South Africa: a Summary (Notes & documents; no. 19 Oct. 1991; Business Day 27 Mar., 10 Apr. 1992 (statements by Trevor Manuel, noting "nationalisation would only be used as a last resort"; ibid., 15 Apr. 1992. return

77"Megatrends in SA's Labour Relations," Star 18 Dec. 1991. return

78Interesting comparative work in other areas includes Badra Lanouel (an Algerian), The Origins of Nationalism in Algeria, the Gold Coast and South Africa Ph.D. Univ. of Aberdeen, 1984, and Dave Cooper, "Locating South Africa in the Third World: Comparative Perspectives on Patterns of Industrialisation and Political Trade Unionism in South America," Social Dynamics v. 17 no. 2 1991, pp. 140 - it is paradoxical this should precede publication of comprehensive comparative research on Southern African. Cooper sees closer parallels of South Africa in Latin American states than Tropical Africa, due to greater and earlier industrialisation, though aware of specificities. return

79G. Shepperson & T. Price, Independent African (Edinburgh: Edin. Univ. Press, 1987), pp. 153-155, 185, 252; T.O. Ranger, The African Voice in Southern Rhodesia (London: Heinemann, 1970); J. Parpart, Labor and Capital on the African Copperbelt (Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Pr., 1983) p. 134. H. Meebelo, African Proletarians & Colonial Capitalism (Lusaka: Kaunda Foundation, 1986), found similar links. Paul Lubeck has combined Weberian sociology, Marxism and world-systems theory in a study of "Islamic ethnonationalism" amongst Nigerian workers, suggesting such an approach can explain complex effects of interaction of class and nation on workers' structures and ideas; P. M. Lubeck, Islam & Urban Labour in Northern Nigeria (CUP, 1986). return

80I. Mandaza, "The Theory and Practice of Liberation in Southern Africa: the Case of Zimbabwe," in Theory and Practice of Liberation at the End of the XXth Century (Brussels: Bruylant, 1988), pp. 465-511. Whilst noting John Saul's role in mobilising anti-colonial support, he criticises him for romantic myth-making, such as claiming "the "logic of protracted struggle" would transcend 'elitism,' and notes myth-making also helps perpewate ideological hegemony of "the gurus of the 'African Studies' industries of the northern hemisphere"; R. Davies, "Post-Apartheid Scenarios for the Southern African Region," Transformation no. 11 1990, pp. 75-89. return

81B. Wood, "Background Profile of the Zimbabwe Labour Movement, 1890-1959," in R.E. Boyd (ed.), Changing Patterns of Worker Relations in Zimbabwe (Montreal: CDAS, McGill University, 1982), pp. 43-56, p. 55-6; T. Ranger, Peasant Consciousness and Guerilla War in Zimbabwe (Harare: ZPH, 1985) D. Lan, Guns and Rain (Harare: ZPH 1985). Ranger (p.26) says it is not possible to consider "worker" consciousness in a migrant situation without peasant consciousness. For labour history see: D. Clarke, "The Determination of Subsistence Wages," SALB Feb. 1976, pp. 30-44; idem., Agricultural and Plantation Workers in Rhodesia (Gweru: Mambo, 1977); I. Phimister, An Economic and Social History of Zimbabwe 1890-1948 (London: Longman, 1988); G. Arrighi, "Labour Supplies in Historical Perspective," in G. Arrighi & J. Saul, Essays on the Political Economy of Africa (New York: Monthly Review) pp. 180-236; P. Harries, "Industrial Worker sin Rhodesia, 1946-1972," JSAS v. 1 1975, pp. 139-61; L. Sachikonye, "State, Capital and Trade Unions," in I. Mandaza (ed.), Zimbabwe: The Political Economy of Transition 1980-1986 (Dakar: Codesria, 1986), pp. 243-74; D.S. Maseilo, The Development of Trade Unionism in Zimbabwe (Harare : Dept. Economic History, Univ. of Zimbabwe, 1986), Graduate Honours thesis. return

82D. Kaplan, "Interview with 8 Workers in Zimbabwe - July 8 1986," SALB [special issue on Zimbabwe) v. 12 no. 6/7 1987; "The Post-Election Wave of Worker Militancy, Zimbabwe 1985," ibid.; [on the weakness of unions see M. Shadur, "The Worker Committees Supplement Weak Trade Unions in Zimbabwe: the Case of the Dairy Marketing Board," ibid., pp.92-104; B. Wood, "Roots of Weakness in Post-Independence Zimbabwe," ibid., pp.47-91]; B. Wood, "Trade-Union Organisation and the Working Class," in C. Stoneman, (ed.) Zimbawe's Prospects (London : Macmillan, 1988), pp. 284-308, p. 289-93, 304; "Zimbabwe's Unions Clash with Government," African Business Sept. 1986; Sunday News (Bulawayo) 21 Feb. 1988; Chronicle (Bulawayo) 14 Mar. 1989. return

83Sunday Mail (Harare) 27 Nov. 1988. In a 1988 speech he pledged to create jobs and income security; R.G. Mugabe, Speech by the President Opening Parliament June 28 1988 (Govt. Printer, 1988), p. 7. return

84Interview with author Monomatapa Buildings, 29 May 1989. return

85The Herald 27 Dec. 1986; Harare municipal workers completing 25 and 35 years service would receive "a certificate, a badge and some money"; A. Mhungu, [National Treasurer ZCTU] "Proposals for Promoting Sound Labour Relations in Zimbabwe,"in Labour Relations in Southern Africa (Geneva: ILO,198?), pp. 57-8; The Herald 27 Dec. 1986, 30 Dec. 1986, 6 Jan. 1987. return

86Republic of Zimbabwe. The Promotion of Investment: Policy and Regulations (April 1989), pp. 34; Weekly Mail 21 Apr. 1989, which noted the new code as "standard IMF medicine in a Zimbabwean bottle"; Sunday Mail 14 May 1989; Z. Murerwa in ibid. return

87C. Stoneman, "The World Bank Demands its Pound of Zimbabwe's Flesh," Review of African Political Economy (RAPE) no. 53 1992, pp. 94-6; L. Sachikonye, "Zimbabwe: Drought, Food and Adjusiment," ibid., pp. 88-94. return

88Letter of Jan. 1992, in possession of the author. See also Star 8 Apr. 1992. return

89See Star 4 Mar. 1992; on background see R. Palmer, "Land Reform in Zimbabwe, 1980-1990," African Affairs no. 89, 1990, pp. 163-8; C. Sylvester, Zimbabwe: the Terrain of Contradictory Development (Boulder: Westview, 1991), pp. 126-7 notes few appropriations have thus far been made to finance the schemes. return

90See Jeffrey Herbst, "Political Impediments to Economic Rationality: Explaining Zimbabwe's Failure to Reform its Public Sector," JMAS v. 27 no. 1 1989, pp. 67-84. return

91T. Skalnes, "Group Interests and the State: an Explanation of Zimbabwe's Agricultural Policies," ibid., pp. 85-107, pp. 92, 107; B. Mitchell, "The State and the Workers' Movement in Zimbabwe," SALB v. 12 no. 67 1987; L. Zinyama, "Local Farmer Organizations and Rural Development in Zimbabwe," in D. Taylor and F. Mackenzie (eds.), Development from Within: Survival in Rural Africa (London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 33-57. Wood, op. cit. (1988) notes agricultural workers in 1984 made up 14,660 of ZCTU's 158,533 members, second only to mining. See also: B. Cousins, "Community, Class and Grazing Management in Zimbabwe's Communal Lands," in Cousins (ed.), People, Land and Livestock: Proceedings of a Workshop. . . (Masvingo: German Agency for Tech. Co-Op., 1989), pp. 311-71; Cousins, D. Weiner & N. Amin, "Social Differentiation in the Communal Lands of Zimbabwe," RAPE no. 53 1992, pp. 5-24. return

92D. Weiner, "Socialist Transition in the Capitalist Periphery: a Case Study of Agriculture in Zimbabwe," Political Geography Quarterly v. 10 no. 1 1991, pp. 54-75. In 1990 ZANU could still come out with a new paper The People's Voice which condemned unnamed "counter-revolutionaries" and in the same issue include "How to Avoid Jetlag on [Qantas] Flights": "ZANU Goes Weekly," Moto Aug. 1990, p. 11; T Sakaike, "Zanu PF Makes the Big Switch," Africa South June 1991, pp. 8-10; C. Rakodi and N.D. Mutizwa-Mangiza, "Housing Policy, Production & Consumption in Harare," Zambezia v. 17 no.1 199[1], pp. 1-30, p. 18. return

93P. Limb, Trade Unions in South Africa and Zimbabwe: a Comparative Review of Labour History, paper submitted to AFSAAP Conference, Univ. of Sydney 1989; idem., "Living on the Frontline" Guardian 19 July 1989; idem., Racism and Black Labour in Colonial Labour Markets: a Comparative Review of the Labour History of Southern Africa & Australasia, paper submitted to Conference on Racism and the Labour Market in a Historical Perspective, Amsterdam Sept. 1991. Miners had been killed in 1978 by the Smith regime. return

94And a dogmatic approach to the one-party concept, now discarded, though SkIar in 1985 pointed to constitutional/judicial forms of guaranteeing pluralism; R. SkIar, "Reds and Rights: Zimbabwe's Experiment," in R. SkIar and C.S. Whitaker, African Politics and Problems in Development (Boulder: Rienner, 1991), pp. 275-84. return

95M. Hall, "Zimbabwe: the Gulf Widens," SALB v. 14 no. 7 Mar. 1990; V. C. Knight, "Growing Opposition in Zimbabwe," Issue v. 20 no. 1 1991, pp. 23-30; I. Mandaza & L. Sachinkonye (eds.), The One Party State and Democracy (Harare: SAPES, 1991). ZANU's 1989 constitution replaced democratic centralism with nomination by provincial executives, and the Politburo is now nominated, not elected by the CC; Knight, op. cit., pp. 26-7. return

96Such as demands for stronger action against employers turning minimum into maximum wages; "Working Classes & the Trade Unions: Need to Look Forward," Zimbabwe News [ZANU] v.20 no.4 Apr. 1989, pp. 57-61. return

97Discussions with Sandia Dambaza and Tapuwa Mutetwa. return

98C. Sylvester, "Unities and Disunities in Zimbabwe's 1990 Election," JMAS v. 28 no. 3 1990, pp. 375-400. Socialist rhetoric stayed on the shelves of ZANU-PF offices where reams of Novosti paperbacks gathered dust, reminding one of columnist "Red Eye" who wandered into an ANC shop in Jo'burg and was amazed to find so many books on communism - phoning the SACP he was told the SACP doesn't sell any books on communism; SAIB v. 16 no. 2 Oct/Nov. 1991, p. 7. return

99Sylvester, op. cit. (1991), pp. 115, 122-5, 141. My daughter, a factory worker in Harare, is the only wage earner in a household of six, which can swell when rural relatives arrive. My granddaughter starts school this year paying fees. They frequently have no money for food; Knight, op.cit., p. 28. return

100The Herald 5 Apr. 1989. return

101A. Cheater, "Contradictions in Modelling 'Consciousness': Zimbabwean Proletaaian in the Making," JSAS v. 14 no. 2 1988, pp. 291-303. Her research was in 1982-3. She cites a worker on May Day 1983: "In future could the prime minister. . . attend . . . make his speech and leave the arena for the workers to express themselves?": idem., The Politics of Factory Organization: a Case Study in Independent Zimbabwe (Gweru: Mambo, 1986), p.148. return

102An office worker's letter to Chronicle 8 May 1989: "what the Zimbabwean worker needs these days is an incentive to perform better and to take home enough to support his family. I think this is socialism in practice." return

103"Weeping Over Willowvale," Southern African Economist v. 2 no. 1 Feb. 1989, pp. 19-21. return

104H. MacMillan,"A Nation Divided? The Swazi in Swaziland and the Transvaal 1865-1986," in L. Vail (ed.), The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa (London: Currey, 1988) pp. 289-323, p. 299 notes Norman Nxumalo, Sobhuza's uncle, was an ICU organiser and many South African Swazi chiefs gave suppon to the ICU. Regarding monarchical links with the ICU, Hilda Kuper notes Sobhuza II knew Champion; H. Kuper, Sobhuza II (London: Duckworth, 1978), pp. 99-100. return

105R. Levin, "Is this the Swazi Way? State, Democracy and the Land Question," Transformation no. 13 1990, pp. 46-66; J. Halpern, South Africa's Hostages (Penguin, 1965), pp. 351-78. NNLC won 20% of the vote in 1967 but gained no seats, gained workers support and won three seats in 1972, but these were annulled; J. Mugyenyi, "Popular Alliances and the State in Swaziland," in P. Anyang' Nyong'o (ed.), Popular Struggles for Democracy in Africa (London: Zed, 1987), pp. 265-285, pp. 269-71. On history see: P. Bonner, Kings, Commoners and Concessionaries (CUP, 1983); M. Fransman, The State and Development in Swaziland, 1962-1977 Ph.D. University of Sussex 1978; J. Crush, The Struggle for Swazi Labour 1890-1920 (Montreal: McGill-Queens Univ. Pr., 1987); J. Daniel, "The Political Economy of Colonial and Post-Colonial Swaziland," SALB v. 7 no. 6 1982; J. Daniel & J. Vilane, "Swaziland: Political Crisis, Regional Dilemma," RAPE no. 35 1986; M. Fransman, The State and Development in Swaziland 1960-1977 D. Phil. Univ. of Sussex, 1978. return

106Levin, op.cit., p. 54; L.R. Rose, The Politics of Harmony: Land Dispute Strategies in Swaziland (CUP, 1992); P. Bowen, Ntamkuphila: Tradition and Change in a Swazi Agricultural Community Ph.D. Univ. of WA 1989. return

107R.H. Davies, D. O'Meara & S. Dlamini, The Kingdom of Swaziland (London: Zed, 1985), ch. 5. return

108Ibid., pp. 37-8, 42-64. The Tibiyo Taka Ngwane Fund, the Swazi National Development Fund, was established by Sobhuza to maintain "traditional" customs. By the 1980's Tibiyo was a major economic force in Swaziland; ibid., pp. 16-18. although a Swazi parastatal, Lonrho capital figures prominently. See also "Swaziland: Not Yet Uhuru," African Communist no. 101, 2/1985, pp. 78-83; M. Russell, "The Rural Swazi Homestead in its Context: a Review of the Literature and Thought for Future Directions," in F. de Vletter (ed.), The Swazi Rural Homestead (Kwaluseni: Univ. Swaziland SSRC, 1983), pp. 317-37, pp. 317-8. return

109Cited in "Swaziland: Not Yet Uhurri," African Communist no. 101, 2/1985, pp. 78-83. Prime Minister Obed Dlamini was a former trade unionist; "PUDEMO Denies Violence," New African Nov. 1991, p. 22. return

110Mugyenyi, op.cit. The Ndabazabantu, an official linking modern and traditional hierarchies, "encourage[s] the workers and build a sound sense of responsibility, respect and discipline - inspire the workers with a feeling of regarding the Industry in terms of a partnership"; cited in I. Winter, "The Post-Colonial State and the Forces and Relations of Production: Swaziland," RAPE no. 9 1978, pp. 27-43, p. 38 See also: P. McFadden, "Women in Wage Labour in Swaziland: Focus on Agriculture," SALB v. 7 no. 6 1982, pp. l40-67. return

111D.C. Funnell, Under the Shadow of Apartheid: Agrarian Transformation in Swaziland (Aldershot: Avebury, 1991), pp. 258-9: but documentary evidence, often based on views conditioned by demands for unity, was ambiguous. return

112M. Russell, "A Landed Proletariat? Coming to Terms with a Contradiction in Terms," H. Tieleman (ed.), Scenes of Change: Visions on Developments in Swaziland (Leiden : African Studies Centre, 1988), pp. 215-29, pp. 224-5. return

113Levin, op.cit.; Swaziland Times 9 Mar. 1988. Minister of Labour Ben Nsibandze warned unions" to stay away from politically motivated or militant leaders," Swaziland Observer 9 Mar. 1988; "Non-Political Trade Unions," Financial Mail (Joh.) 25 Mar. 1988. The Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions had 13 affiliates in 1988; Funnell, op.cit., pp. 73, 259; Mugyenyi, op.cit., p. 284. return

114J. Mkhatshwa, "Swaziland: a New People's Organisation is Formed," African Communist no. 121 2/1990, pp. 81-3 "Swaziland : Not Yet Uhuru," ibid., no. 101, 2/1985, pp. 78-83 was critical of neglect of the country by the "relevant progressive forces." return

115Interview with J. Matsebula April 1992. All quotes below are from this interview unless otherwise stated. return

116Joyce Abena, "Swaziland: the Beginning of the End of Monarchist Domination," SAPEM Feb. 1991, pp. 30-33 notes the use of the past to glorify male monarchs in Swaziland "creates a silence about the daily lived realities of the bulk of the people," such that the "peasant woman in Swaziland bears the full burden of traditionalism." return

117Letter of Jabulane Matsebula to Dlamini, Prime Minister, 9 April 1992, in which the monarchical regime is characterised as having "a narrow perspective of National interest." return

118There is apparently no formal agreement between PUDEMO and the ANC. On Swazi radicals frustration at the lack of ANC/SACP involvement see "Swaziland: Not Yet Uhuru," op.cit. return

119The Times of Swaziland 2 Jan. 1992 carrieci a headline article by Gordon MbuIi on King Mswati III's call for exiles to return On student opposition see G. McFadden, "Monarch Cracks Down on Dissent," and "Behind the Student Tunmoil," SAPEM Dec. 1990, pp.43-46. On open-air meetings see "Swazis Invited to Speak Out," New African Dec. 1991, p. 16. Two weeks before the amnesty The Swazi Observer featured a call by Jabulane Matsebula to end the State of Emergency and repressive legislation; Swazi Observer 24 Dec. 1991. He expressed concern that the government "has not been moved an inch by the tide of change experienced by our beloved continent." return

120On detainees see Amnesty International UA 468/90: Swaziland. return

121The 1992 New Year Message from the Desk of the External Wing of PUDEMO evokes, if not nationalist, then populist themes, when it calls on the masses, the people, patriots to fight the fascist system for democracy; New Year Message from the Desk of the External Wing of PUDEMO, Jan. 1992, by J. Matsebula, typescript. return

122Dlamini charged that "people were being forced to adhere to a political system that was very undesirable"; The Times of Swaziland 12 Dec. 1991. Significantly the MP's claimed parliamentary privilege. return

123Funnell, op. cit., p. 266; interview with Jabu Matsebula; interview with MK cadre. return

124On worker-nationalist links in Namibia see: B. Wood, "The Battle for Trade Unions in Nainibia," SALB May 1987; Windhoek Advertiser 4, 19 May, 20 Aug. 1987, 25 June 1988; Namibian 8 May 1987, 19, 26 Feb. 1988, 20 Jan. 1989; Weekly Mail 31 July 1987; Namibia in the News 27/87; City Press 26 June 1988; Sowetan 3 Sept 1986; New Nation 6 Aug. 1987, 18 Feb. 1988; Namibian Worker 1 Apr. 1989; Working Under South African Occupation (London: IDAF, 1987); Namibian Workers Organise (NUNW/COSATU: 1989). B. Ulenga, "SWAPO, Unions - One Struggle," SALB v. 14 no. 5 Oct. 1989: "I don't think you can have a politically influenced trade union movement that would be very far from SWAPO . . . [the] movement and SWAPO have a very close relationship. Most of the people in the trade union leadership are SWAPO members." return

125The Constitution of the Republic of Namibia (Windhoek, 1990), pp. 2, 7, 13 refers to freedom of association and withdrawal of labour without criminal penalties as fundamental freedoms, and prohibits forced labour; Star 4 Mar. 1992; T. Sellström, "Namibia's Economy a Year After Independence," SAPEM Mar. 1991; B. Gawanas, "Fulfilling Expectations," ibid.; R. Ayisi, "Namibian Miners Struggle Continues," Africa South July 1990; "New Life in Unions," NamibiaBrief Apr. 1991. NUNW in 1991 re-affiliated to SWAPO on grounds it was a liberation movement, not a party. Nujoma told May Day 1991 that unjust labour practices must end, whilst NUNW demanded implementation of labour codes. R. Dale, "Nation-Building in Namibia: the Search for International Legitimacy," Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism v. 18 1991, pp. 33-42 notes: "African nationalism [in Namibia] has rested upon the condensational symbol of a unified state, of Pan-African identification, Black consciousness and empowerment, and a pantheon of those who had resisted." return

126C. Clapham, "The Collapse of Socialism in the Third World," & K. Mengisteab, "Responses of Afro-Marxist States to the Crisis of Socialism: a Preliminary Assessment," both in Third World Quarterly v. 13 no. 1 1992, pp. 13-26, and 77-88. Mengisteab notes states like Zimbabwe opting for a mixed economy lack prerequisites for social control of production, but mixed economy without democratisation means, as elsewhere, the worst of both worlds. return

127M. Leier, "Which Side Are They On? Some Suggestions for the Labour Bureaucracy Debate," International Review of Social History V. 36 1991, pp. 412-27. Cf. J.M. Barbalet, "The 'Labour Aristocracy' in Context," Science and Society v. 51 1987, pp. 133-53. return

128C. Levy, Review of E. Hobsbawm, op.cit., (1987), Labour History Review v. 56 no. 3 1991, pp. 64-7. return

129A. Ladley & D. Lan, "The Law of the Land : Party and State in Rural Zimbabwe," JSAS v. 12 no. 1 1985, pp. 88-101; J. Testerink, Land Relations and Conflict in Eastern and Southern Africa (Perth: Indian Ocean Centre for Peace Studies, 1991) p. 14 notes "nationalist feelings" arose during a land reform project when the owner, the Commonwealth Development Corporation, was seen as acting in a colonialist manner, leading to the project being transferred to the state; ANC Land Commission Workshop: a Discussion Document (Belleville: CDS UWC, 1990) shows the close attention of the ANC to land policies in Zimbabwe; B. Sansom, op.cit., p. 411. return

130T. Mkandawire, "On 'Nationalist Betrayal' and 'Imperialist Conspiracies,' " SAPEM Feb. 1991, pp. 47-9. return