Chronology of Haitian History
Assembled by Bob Corbett, 27 October 1995
- Dec. 5. Columbus lands at Mole St. Nicholas (Paquin)
- Dec. 24. Santa Maria sank off coast of Cap
- Dec. Columbus settled La Navidad with refuse
from Santa Maria.
- Jan. 14. First armed conflict with Ciguayos.
- Battle of Santo Cerro, end of effective Indian
- Sugar is introduced to Hispaniola from the Canary
Islands (Sugar by Plant)
- First slaves brought to Hispaniola by the Portuguese mostly
from W. Africa (respresenting such tribal groups as the Ibos,
Senegalese, Bambaras, Aradas, Congolese, and Dambas.
- Spain send first official cargo of African slaves
to New World. (Paquin)
- Sir Francis Drake captured Santo Domingo and held
it for a month. (Korngold).
- First French settlers on Isle de la Tortue and along northern
coast around Port de Paix; refugees from St. Christophe
- France gains control of Tortuga Island, off the
mainland of the western part of Hispaniola (Sugar by Plant)
- Louis XIV authorizes the French slave trade in Saint-Domingue.
- Publication of the CODE NOIR. (Sugar by Plant)
- Sept. 20. (Heinl) Treaty of Ryswick. Spain recognizes France’s
claim to Western St. Domingue. (Paquin)
- (About) Sugar cultivation on massive scale begins in colony,
changing its economic role in the French empire profoundly.
- Port-au-Prince founded. (B-Smith)
- Macandal leads insurrection against the French (Paquin)
- Macandal captured and executed at Cap Francois (Paquin)
- Jesuits expelled from Haiti (Heinl, p. 26, note 20)
- (??) Treaty ending the Seven Years’ War. France gives up Canada to
England but keeps Haiti.
- coffee production becomes economically important.
- France sends troops from St. Domingue to support
Americans in War of Independence. Troops fight at
- Le Jeune Case: 14 black slaves brought documented accusations
of abuse against white planter; case was dismissed out
of fear of inciting whites.
- The Estates General in Paris admits white delegates from the
colonies to the 3rd Estate.
- Oct. Oge and Chavannes take up arms against
French in North. (Paquin)
- May 15. French National Assembly declares all
free-born men of color eligible to be seated. (Paquin)
- Aug. 14. Ceremony of Bois-Cayman. (Paquin)
- Aug. 22. Revolt of slaves.
- Sept. 11. Whites and mulattoes signed a
concordat to give mulattos full citizenship. (Barskett)
- Sept 24. The National Assembly rescinds the May 15 decree.
- April 4. Famous final decree of French Assembly
giving all free black full citizenship. (Barskett)
- Aug. 29. Sonthonax decresss liberation of slaves. (Paquin)
- Sept. British troops land in St. Domingue. (Paquin)
- Sept. 19. Jeremie. + other places. (Barskett)
- Feb. 4. French freed the slaves. (Cooper, p. 7)
- Feb. 5. Mixed delegation from St. Domingue
seated at Paris National Convention. (Paquin)
- April 6. Toussaint turned back to the French. (Korngold)
- June 4. P-a-P fell to revolution. (Barskett)
- July 22. Spain and France signed a treaty giving
France the Spanish part of the island. (Barskett)
- March 20. Villate arrested Laveaux. (Korngold)
- March-April Toussaint marches into O Cap; is
declared lieutenant governor by Laveaux. (Paquin)
- May 11. 3rd Commission lands. Task: curb Toussaint’s power.
- March. Sonthonax appoints Toussaint commander-
in-chief of French forces. (Paquin)
- April 27. Toussaint forces Sonthonax out. (Korngold).
- Nov. 5. Toussaint agrees to send his sons to
- March 27. General Hedouville landed. Wanted to
divide Rigaud and Toussaint. (Korngold)
- Aug. 31 British troops evacuate Mole. (Paquin)
- Oct. 23 Toussaint enters Cap in triumph.
Hedouville sailed for France. (Paquin)
- May 22. Louverture signs a tripartite treaty w/ US and Britain
- June 13. Toussaint signed a treaty with Britain,
including secret provisions. (Korngold)
- Jan. 26. Toussaint invades Santo Domingo.
Declares slavery abolished. (Paquin)
- July 1. New constitution promulgated. Toussaint
declared governor general for life. St. D. was to be
an independent French state. (Barskett)
- Feb. 1. Christophe refuses Leclerc permission
to land at Cap; sets fire to town. (Paquin)
- March 24. French win at Crete-a-Pierrot (B-Smith)
- March. Leclerc re-introduces slavery. (Barskett)
- June 7. Toussaint betrayed and sent to France. (James)
- June. Yellow fever strikes French. Renewed
- Nov. 1. Leclerc died. General Rochambeau took
- April 7: Toussaint dies in captivity in France. (Paquin)
- May. Britain recommenced war with France and
blockaded Cape Francois. (Barskett)
- May 18. At Arcahaie; Haitian flag is born. (Paquin)
- Nov. 18. Haitian victory at Vertieres (B-Smith)
- Nov. 19. Rochambeau surrendered. (Barskett)
- Nov. 29. French left Haiti (James, 369)
- Jan. 1 Haitian independence declared by
Dessalines at Gonaives.
- Jan.-March Massacre of the French. (Paquin)
- Oct. 8. Dessalines crowned Emperor Jacques I of
- Feb. Dessalines launches unsuccessful invasion
of Santo Domingo.(Paquin)
- May 20. Dessalines ratifies Haiti’s first constitution. (Paquin)
- Oct. 17. Revolt against Dessalines. Emperor
betrayed and killed at Pont-Rouge. (Paquin)
- Dec. Haiti declared a republic. Christophe refuses presidency.
- Feb. 17. Christophe proclaimed president of
newly created State of Haiti in North. (Paquin)
- Feb. 17. Christophe’s constitution. (BArskett)
- March 11. Petion elected president of republic of Haiti. (Paquin)
- Dec. 13. Santo Domingo reverted to Spain. (Heinl p. 5.)
- Nov. French left Samana, now only occupied Santo Domingo.
- July. French left Santo Domingo, finally out of S.D.
- Nov. 2. Rigaud declared L’Etat du Sud. (Paquin)
- June 2. Christophe crowned King Henry I of Haiti. (Paquin)
- June. King Henry XVIII plans for a re-occupation
of Haiti and re-enslavement of people. (Barskett)
- Sept. French diplomat, Lavayasse, tried to get Christophe and Petion
to recognize France. Neither will do so. (Barskett)
- Upon the return of Bonapart to France, Haiti again reject union.
- June 2. Petion declared president for life. (Paquin)
- Summer. Louis XVIII again tried to get colonial
status for Haiti. (BArskett)
- March 29. Death of Petion. (Paquin)
- March 30. Boyer elected president for life. (Paquin)
- Oct. 8. Christophe takes his own life. (Paquin)
- Oct. 26. Boyer enters Cap. Haiti reunited. (Paquin)
- Nov. 30. Santo Domingo became free under Caceres. (Heinl, p. 165.)
- Feb. 9. Haitian army reaches Ciudad Santo Domingo (Paquin)
Boyer took it. (Heinl, p. 165.)
- Haitian Occupation of Santo Domingo (Sugar by Plant)
- April 17. Haitian independence recognized by France. (Paquin)
- Haitian Code Rural adopted. (Sugar by Plant)
- June 9. Treaty in which France recognizes
Haiti’s final and complete independence. (Paquin)
- B. Ardouin publishes 11 volume work on Haitian history. (B-Smith)
- March 13. Boyer abdicates. Provisional government headed by
- Dominican independence declared for the first time, and
slavery abolished in the eastern part of the island.
(Sugar by Plant)
- March 10. Riviere-Herard invades Santo-Domingo. (Paquin)
- April Piquet uprising in South. Acaau heads
Armee Souffrante. (Paquin)
- May 3. Riviere-Herard deposed. Guerrier sworn in a president.
- April 16. Council of State elects Pierrot
president, following death of Guerrier. (Paquin)
- March 1. Pierrot deposed. Riche declared president. (Paquin)
- Publication of first volume on Haitian history by
Thomas Madiou. (B-Smith)
- March 1. Soulouque elected president following
death of Riche on Feb. 27. (Paquin)
- April 16. Soulouque massacres in Port-au-Prince. (Paquin)
- March. Soulouque invades Santo Domingo. (Paquin)
- Aug. 20. Soulouque proclaimed Emperor Faustin I. (Paquin)
- Jan. 15. Soulouque abdicates. (Paquin)
- Jan. 18. Geffrard takes oath of office as president. (Paquin)
- March 28 Concordat between the Vatican and Haiti signed. (Paquin)
- June 5. United States recognizes Haiti. (Paquin)
- May. Salnave insurrection. (Paquin)
- Nov. US recognizes Haiti with a treaty of friendship,
commerce, and navigation
- Dominican independence declared for the second
time. (Sugar by Plant)
- March 13. Fall of Geffrard (Paquin)
- June 14. Salnave sworn in a president of Haiti. (Paquin)
- Guerre de Salnave or Guerre des Cacos. (Paquin)
Palace blown up. Salnave flees. (Paquin)
- Jan. 15. Salnave tried, condemned and executed. (Paquin)
- March 20. Nissage-Saget elected president. (Paquin)
- Feb. 9 National Palace burns to ground. (Paquin)
- June 11. Germans seize Haitian navy in P-a-P harbor. (Paquin)
- June 12. Domingue succeeds Nissage-Saget. (Paquin)
- April 15. Domingue deposed (Paquin)
- July 17. Boisrond-Canal elected president. (Paquin)
- July 17. Boisrond-Canal steps down. (Paquin)
- March 23. Boyer-Bazelais and followers land and seize Mirogoane.
- Sept. 22-25. Bloody week. (Paquin)
- Jan. 8. Mirogoane falls to government troops. (Paquin)
- Aug. 10. Salomon steps down; sails for France. (Paquin)
- Dec. 16. Legitime declared president. (Paquin)
- Oct. 17. Hippolyte sworn in as president after
victory over Legitime. (Paquin)
- March 31. Simon Sam elected president following
death of Hippolyte, March 24. (Paquin)
- May 12. Simon Sam abdicates. Mob uprising in P-a-P. (Paquin)
- July 26 Firmin civil war erupts. (Paquin)
- Sept. 6. Sinking of the Crete-a-Pierrot by
German gunboat Panther at Gonaives. (Paquin)
- Dec. 17. Nord Alexis acclaimed president. (Paquin)
- Dec. 20. Downfall of Nord Alexis. Antoine Simon
elected president. (Paquin)
- Aug. 14 Antoine Simon deposed. Leconte president. (Paquin)
- Aug. 7. National Palace blown up. Leconte killed. (Paquin)
- Aug. 12. August inaugurated as president. (Paquin)
- May 12. Death of Auguste. Oreste inaugurated. (Paquin)
- Jan. 27. Oreste resigns. (Paquin)
- Feb. 8. Zamor elected president. (Paquin)
- Nov. 7. Theodore elected president following departure of Zamor.
- Feb. 22. Theodore steps down. (Paquin)
- March 22. Guillaume Sam takes oath of office as president. (Paquin)
- July 27. Slaughter of political prisoners in
penitentiary. Sam takes refuge in French embassy,
is dragged out and killed by mob. (Paquin)
- July 28. U.S. Marines land in Port-au-Prince. (Paquin)
- Aug. 11. National Assembly elects Dartiguenave president.(Paquin)
- Aug. 21. Americans take charge of Haitian customs houses. (Paquin)
- Sept. Cacos revolt in the ARtibonite and the North. (Paquin)
- Nov. 17-18. Cacos in the North defeated. (Paquin)
- American occupation of the Dominican Republic (Sugar by Plant)
- Nov. Caco Rebellion in the North. (Paquin)
- Oct. 30-31. Death of Charlemagne Peralte. End
of Caco war in the North. (Paquin)
- May 19. Benoit Batraville killed. End of Caco
Rebellion in the Artibonite. (Paquin)
- Feb. 11. Russell appointed American high commissioner. (Paquin)
- April 10. Borno elected president. (Paquin)
- Publication of Jean Price-Mars THUS SPOKE THE
UNCLE, the origins of Haitian negritude.
- April 21. Roy assumes powers as provisional president. (Paquin)
- Oct. Student strike at Damien followed by general strike. (Paquin)
- Dec. 6. U.S. opens fire on unarmed peasants at Marchaterre. (B-Smith)
- General Trujillo assumes power in the Dominican Republic.(Sugar by Plant)
- Aug. 14. Eng of American occupation. (Paquin)
- Oct. Trujillo orders massacre of Haitian
population in the Dominican Republic. (Paquin)
- May 15. Lescot succeeds Vincent. (Paquin)
- Dec. 8. Haiti declares war on Japan, Germany, Italy. (Paquin)
- Publication of MASTERS OF THE DEW by Jacques Roumain. First
major Haitian novel. (B-Smith)
- Jan. General strike; fall of Lescot; army assumes power.
- Aug. 16. Estime elected president.
- Port-au-Prince International Exposition.
- May 10. Estime deposed. Army assumes power.
- Dec. 6. Magloire inaugurated president.
- Dec. 12 Magloire fall and goes into exile.
Pierre-Louis takes over as provisional president.
- Feb.--June. Ephemeral presidencies of Sylvain and Fignole.
- Oct. 22. Duvalier inaugurated as president.
- July 28. Attempted invasion and takeover of palace thwarted.
- Aug. 13. Attempted Castroite invasion in South fails.
- April. Start of the Barbot insurrection.
- Aug.--Sept. Cantave invasion attempt.
- April 1. Duvalier president for life. Duvalier changes flag from
blue and red to black and red. (B-Smith)
- Jan. 22. Duvalier announces Jean-Claude will succeed him.
- April 21. Death of Duvalier.
- . Pig population killed in response to Asian Swine Flu.
- Pope John Paul II visits Haiti and publically
criticizes Duvalier regime.
- Feb. 7. Jean-Claude Duvalier flees Haiti.
- March 29. New constitution ratified.
- November 29. Massacre of voters; elections cancelled.
- Jan. 17. Election of Leslie Manigat as president of Haiti.
- June 17. Manigat deposed. General Namphy becomes president.
- Sept. 17. Namphy overthrown, General Prosper Avril becomes president.