The independent Republic of Haiti (1804–1915)

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On eve of 200th anniversary of Haitian independence: A history of U.S. embargoes
By Greg Dunkel, Haiti Progres, 15–21 October 2003. The current U.S. boycott in the context of 19th century embargoes. During the 1800s Haiti had two neo-colonial overlords: France and the United States, both of which extracted as much as they could from the country, blaming its economic problems on what the Haitians were forced to do to survive.
Who Led the Boycott on Haiti of 1806?
By Bob Corbett, 2 June 1995. US or France? Was it really the U.S. which led the boycott of 1806? (brief query)
Norwich has tie to early Haiti history
By Francis McCabe, Norwich Bulletin, [7 January 2004]. An aristocratic refugee fleeing the Haitian slave revolts, Jean-Pierre Boyer picked up Napoleonic liberalism and ended by joining the Haitian Revolution, where military success eventually led to his presidency in 1818.
Boyer: Expansion and Decline
Library of Congress, Country Studies, December 1989. A political history of his presidency. Boyer shared P├ętion's conciliatory approach to governance, but he lacked his stature as a leader. The length of Boyer's rule (1818-43) reflected his political acumen, but he accomplished little.
Faustin I: a reply
By Thomas Whigham. A graphic tale associated with President Faustin Soulouque (1847–59). Unconfirmed accounts assert Faustin participated in cannibalistic rites, drinking the blood of his late rivals, keeping their skulls to use as drinking cups on his desk, foreshadowing Duvalier [Publisher's note: drinking from a cup fashioned from your enemy' skull is an old topos that should not be taken too seriously].
Decades of instability, 1843–1915
Library of Congress, Country Studies, December 1989. During this wide gulf between the 1843 revolution and occupation by the United States in 1915, Haiti's leadership became the most valuable prize in an unprincipled competition among strongmen. The overthrow of a government usually degenerated into a business venture, with foreign merchants—frequently Germans—initially funding a rebellion in the expectation of a substantial return after its success.