FRAPH and Toto Constant

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Toto Constant arrested
By Rich Gosser, 13 May 1995. Emmanuel Toto Constant was the founder of FRAPH. His story provides an interesting subplot to the US intervention in Haiti.
Arrest of FRAPH chief poses questions for U.S.
By Jim Lobe, IPS. 19 May 1995. The arrest in New York this week of the chief of a Haitian paramilitary group which waged a terror campaign against supporters of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide could create new headaches for the U.S. intelligence community.
From Weekly News Update on the Americas, 21 May 1995. Emmanuel Toto Constant, founder of FRAPH, and his arrest by the US government. Haitian analysts continue to speculate on the US government's motives for arresting former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) asset Emmanuel (Toto) Constant in New York City on May 10.
Pentagon protects FRAPH and obstructs justice in Haiti
Haiti Progress, This Week in Haiti, 25-31 October 1995. Last October, US military forces dramatically seized the headquarters of the Haitian death squad FRAPH (Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti). One aim of the raid was steal 60,000 pages of documents from FRAPH offices.
The CIA and Haiti
New York Times Editorial, 8 December 1995. The performance of the Central Intelligence Agency in Haiti is a cautionary tale about what can happen when a spy organization loses sight of the clear line between providing neutral intelligence estimates and interfering with the execution of American foreign policy.
U.S. gov't vs. Haitian People: Macoute killer freed
By G. Dunkel, Workers World, 27 June 1996. On Jun 14 the U.S. gave the nod to right-wing terror perpetuated by big landlords and their allies in northern Haiti when it freed Emmanuel Constant, head of the paramilitary death-squad organization FRAPH and a self-confessed employee of the CIA. He had been held pending deportation to Haiti, where he is wanted for murder.
The occult crimes of U.S. imperialism
Haiti Info, 14 December 1995. Over the past two weeks, the complicity and support of the CIA, the U.S. embassy, the Pentagon, the U.S. Army and the State Department for those who backed the 1991 coup d'etat and still terrorize the population have been repeatedly exposed.
Cables Show U.S. Deception on Haitian Violence
By Larry Rohter, 6 February 1996. In the months following the U.S. invasion of Haiti, American officers repeatedly told their troops that the country's most dreaded paramilitary group was actually a legitimate opposition political party like the Democrats or Republicans.
Francois Emmanuel Toto Constant
Virtual Truth Commission [1 August 1998]. A chronology for Constant and FRAPH, 1992–1998, published by the Virtual Truth Commission.
Washington cozy with death-squad leader
By G. Dunkel, Workers World, 8 August 1996. Washington's refusal to extradite the notorious leader of the FRAPH death squad, Emmanuel Toto Constant, to Haiti typifies U.S. policy toward that country. The US/UN military occupation has protected the reactionary Duvalierists and Macoutes from just punishment.
US makes a mockery of justice
Extracts from Haiti Briefing, Haiti Support Group, London, August 1998. Emmanuel Constant, the leader of the FRAPH death squad that murdered hundreds of Haitians in 1993–4, claims that his organisation is still operating in Haiti, and that, together with former soldiers, he is planning to engineer the return to power of former dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier.
Wanted Haitian's Quiet Life in U.S. Draws Criticism
By Lynne Duke, Washington Post, 17 September 2000. Constant is one of Haiti's most-wanted men, an alleged death-squad leader living in the U.S. with impunity. Constant's is perhaps the most fraught and embarrassing human rights case facing the U.S. government.
FRAPH genesis
From a dialog on the Haiti list, 8 November 2003. The FRAPH did not appear until 1993, either in official or unofficial form. It was created/sponsored by a group of senior army officers on CIA payroll.