Retrospective African-American history (broad chronology)

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African American History is American History
By Allen Harris, The People's Tribune (Online Edition), February 1997. The social and economic oppression of the black people of the U.S. has always been a part of the oppression of the working class. Bourgeois rule in America has always depended upon using the color question to divide and hold down both white and non-white workers and poor people.
African-American contributions to American life
By John P. Schmal, 22 September 1999. From the opening salvos of the Revolutionary War to Operation Desert Storm, African Americans have contributed their fair share to US military aggression, frequently against a backdrop of segregation, discrimination, and racism.
The shame of the Buffalo Soldiers
By Mark P. Fancher, The Black World Today, 25 October 2000. Many Africans married into indigenous nations and fought bravely as warriors against racist white troops. Capitalist popular culture has nevertheless chosen to forget the Africans who fought for liberation shoulder-to-shoulder with the indigenous people and instead praises the Black cavalrymen known as the Buffalo Soldiers even though they slaughtered indigenous peoples.
Bronx Stroll: The Slave Market
By C.J. Sullivan, New York Press, 14–20 February 2001. Around 1670 the first blacks were brought to the Bronx, as slaves. Back in the 1930s one of the largest black presences in the Bronx was the women who would come over from Harlem and line up on a street corner in the Bronx looking for day work as domestics. The proportion of blacks stayed diminutive in the Bronx until after WWII.
Torn From the Land (Introduction)
By Todd Lewan and Dolores Barclay, Associated Press, December 2001. AP Documents Land Taken From Blacks Through Trickery, Violence and Murder. This is the Introduction to a three part series.
Torn from the Land (Part 1 of 3)
By Todd Lewan and Dolores Barclay, Associated Press, Sunday 2 December 2001. This is Part One of Torn From the Land, a three-part series documenting how black Americans lost family land over the last 150-plus years.
Torn From the Land (part ? of 3)
By Todd Lewan and Delores Barclay, Associated Press, [7 December 2001]. AP Documents Land Taken From Blacks Through Trickery, Violence and Murder.
Living in the North Gave Blacks No Guarantee Against Land Grabs
By Allen G. Breed, Associated Press, [07 December 2001]. Example of a 45 mixed race residents of Malago Island, near Phippsburg, Maine.
40 Years since the March on Washington
Socialist Worker, [9 September 2003]. Three essays: King's dream and the American nightmare, by Kevin Ovenden, History of racism at the heart of the beast, and Civil Rights.
Mississippi hanging exposes Black struggle for land
By Minnie Bruce Pratt, Workers World, 13 May 2004. There is a long history of white vigilante violence against Black economic independence and land ownership in Mississippi. Violent assault on Black self-determination. The struggle for Black people to gain and retain land ownership was central to their survival in the South.
A revolutionary perspective
By Pat Chin, Workers World, 29 January 2006. If we simply study without struggling to change the world, our history will be obliterated. “Power concedes nothing without a demand”.
Defyng Dixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919–1950, by Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore
Reviewed by Raymond Arsenault, Washington Post, Sunday 13 January 2008. In the fulsome view of the great American success story, there was no room for radical dissent, no place for systemic failure. Glenda Gilmore's remarkable new book, Defying Dixie, the left-wing origins of the civil rights movement have risen to the surface of historical debate.
The Historic Role of Police Brutality in the Black Community and African American Oppression
By Roland Sheppard, [3 June 2006]. An important part Black history is the destruction of Reconstruction and the establishment of Jim Crow in the South and racial segregation in the North. Since then the Black community has been a virtual police state. Police violence enforces the ongoing resegregation/gentrification of society and to prevent revolt against the racist polices of the government.