The retrospective history of the Republic of Panama

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How Wall Street Created a Nation
By Russell Mokhiber and Robert Weissman, 28 October 2001. Corporate hijacking of U.S. foreign policy. In 1900, a group of investors created a secret syndicate of Wall Street financiers and politicians to buy the shares of the bankrupt French Panama Canal Company, which owned the right to build the Panama Canal.
When the country sold part of itself
By Hernando Calvo Ospina, Le Monde diplomatique, December 2003. The US has the right and the duty to affirm and maintain its right of intervention on any kind of transoceanic canal across the isthmus. In January 1903 a treaty was signed authorising the French to hand over their rights to the US and giving the US near-sovereign control of the canal and areas either side of it for 100 years.
Historical backdrop to Panama's change of government
By Eric Jackson, The Panama News, 8 September 1999. The origins of Panama's main political parties, from 1931 to the end of the PRD in 1989.
The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone
By Eric Jackson, The Panama News, 28 December 1999. From the Martyrs of 1964 to the Flag Riots.