The retrospective history of Turkmenistan

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An Encounter Between Z.V. Togan and S. Freud
By H. B. Paksoy, International Bulletin of Political Psychology, Vol.4 no.24, 19 June 1998. Zeki Velidi Togan (1890–1970) was a Bashkurt Turk and professor of history for over half a century. He became a leader of the Turkistan National Liberation Movement—called the Basmachi Movement by the Russians—in Central Asia from 1916 to the 1930s.
‘Basmachi:’ Turkistan National Liberation Movement 1916–1930s
By H. B. Paksoy, Modern Encyclopedia of Religions in Russia and the Soviet Union (FL: Academic International Press, 1991, Vol. 4). The movement was a reaction not only to Tsarist conscription, but to the Russian conquest itself and the policies employed by the tsarist state in that region (56kB).