The retrospective history of Turkmenistan
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- An Encounter Between Z.V. Togan and
- By H. B. Paksoy, International Bulletin of Political
Psychology, Vol.4 no.24, 19 June 1998. Zeki Velidi
Togan (1890–1970) was a Bashkurt Turk and professor of
history for over half a century. He became a leader of the
Turkistan National Liberation Movement—called the
Basmachi Movement by the Russians—in Central Asia from
1916 to the 1930s.
- ‘Basmachi:’ Turkistan National
Liberation Movement 1916–1930s
- By H. B. Paksoy, Modern Encyclopedia of Religions in
Russia and the Soviet Union (FL: Academic
International Press, 1991, Vol. 4). The movement was a
reaction not only to Tsarist conscription, but to the
Russian conquest itself and the policies employed by the
tsarist state in that region (56kB).