The retrospective history of the Philippines
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- Southern Philippines' uneasy
- By Jonathan Head, BBC News Online, Tuesday
20 February 2001. There have been previous attempts to
reach a peace agreement with the south which have all so
far failed to end the fighting. The armed conflict between
Muslim separatists and the army in the southern
Philippines has continued since the days of martial law
under former President Marcos nearly 30 years ago.
- Mindanao: a miniature history
- By Carmen A Abubaker, Le Monde
diplomatique, September 2003. The Mindanao conflict
dates from the 16th century, when the Spanish sent
military expeditions from Manila to subjugate the
Muslims—whom they called Moros, after the Moors of
Spain—and convert them to Christianity. A religious
and cultural divide in Philippines society that has not
yet been mended.
- Imperial Amnesia
- By John B. Judis, Foreign Policy,
July/August 2004. Bush credited the United States for
transforming the Philippines into a democracy. But this
rendition of Philippine-American history bore little
relation to fact. Relation of U.S. to Philippine
independence and democracy.