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Mao Heads Peiping Regime; Program Supports Moscow

By Walter Sullivan, New York Times, 1 October 1949

Shanghai, Sept. 30--Mao Tze-tung, chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist party, was elected chairman of the new Central Government of the People's Republic of China today as the Chinese People's Political Consultative Council completed its job of launching the new government of Communist China.

Three other leading Communists and three non-Communists were named vice chairmen. The Communists are Gen. Chu Teh, Commander in Chief; Liu Shao-chi, a member of the Political Bureau and usually rated the highest ranking member of the party under Mr. Mao, and Kao Kang, chairman of the Northeast People's Government.

The three non-Communist vice chairmen are Mme. Sun Yat-sen, widow of the founder of the Chinese Republic; Chang Lan, aged chairman of the Democratic League, and Li Chi- shen, chairman of the Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee.

The organ headed by Mr. Mao and the six vice chairmen is the Central People's Government Council which wields the supreme power of the Central Government.

The remaining fifty-six members of this Council were also elected today. Likewise 180 members of the National Committee were named.

Today's meeting, the first plenary session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Council was adjourned. Normally it will meet henceforth only once every three years.

All the elections today were unanimous, according to a report of the official New China News Agency.

Notably absent from the list of those elected was Gen. Chou En-lai, leading Communist who played a major role in the formulation of the new government. However still unfilled is the post of Premier.

The latter will be head of the Administrative Council, which is one of the four organs that come directly under the Central People's Government Council, headed by Mr. Mao. The other three organs on this level are the People's Revolutionary Military Council, which will presumably still be headed by Gen. Chu The; the Supreme People's Court and the People's Office of Procurator General.

All the functions of government not covered by these three come under the Administrative Council, including the Foreign Affairs Ministry.

In a declaration passed today the Political Consultative Council repeated an earlier statement that the new regime would unite with all peace and freedom loving countries, nations and people, first of all the Soviet Union and the new democratic countries, as allies to oppose jointly the imperialist plots for provoking war and to strive for lasting world peace.

Sunday has been named chief day for celebrating the formation of the new government and elaborate preparations are being made in Shanghai and, presumably elsewhere, for parades and other festivities on that date. A three-day holiday, beginning tomorrow, has been proclaimed.

The text of the common program of China's new People's Democratic Republic was made public today detailing what are to be basic policies concerning the functioning of the Central Government, foreign relations, education, industrialization, the treatment of national minorities and many other fundamental issues.

Only an unofficial translation, issued by the New China News Agency is available so far.

The program guarantees that the people of the new republic have freedom of thought, speech, publication, assembly, association, correspondence, domicile, religion and the right to hold processions and demonstrations.

As indicated by earlier statements, these rights of the people will not apply to bureaucratic capitalists or landlords.

The above freedoms are embodied in Article 5.

Article 49 adds that of reporting true news. Utilization of the press for slander, the undermining of the state or inciting world war, will be prohibited, the program says.

The all-China People's Congress, which will be the supreme organ of the state over the continuing administrative structure when it is in session, will be elected by universal suffrage, according to the program. Likewise the lower levels of the People's Congress will be named by universal suffrage.

Jurisdiction Questions

Elections will not be held in any locality until the military government phase is terminated. The elections are also linked to the completion of agrarian reform.

Jurisdiction of the central and local governments will be determined by a decree of the central government so as to benefit both national unification and local expediency, says Article 16.

The convening of the all-China People's Congress will be some time hence in view of the conditions set for holding local elections. In the meanwhile the Chinese People's Political Consultative Council will exercise the functions of that body.

The foreign policy provisions of the program state that the new Central Government will examine the treaties and agreements concluded by the Kuomintang Government with other nations and recognize, abrogate, or revise or renew them, according to their respective contents.

Previously announced conditions for the establishment of diplomatic relations are reiterated. One of these is that a foreign state that established relations with the new regime would have to sever relations with the Kuomintang. The sixtieth and last article of the program provides that foreign nationals will receive asylum in China if they are oppressed by their own Governments for supporting the people's interests and taking part in the struggle for peace and 'democracy.'

In education, the scientific, historical viewpoint shall be applied to the study and interpretation of history, economics, politics, culture and international affairs, it was said.

The method of education will be unity of theory and practice, with emphasis on technical education.

In the realm of military affairs there will be a system of people's militia to maintain local order, lay the foundation for national mobilization and prepare for the enforcement of an obligatory military service system at the appropriate moment.

It is also provided that in peace the armed forces will systematically assist in agriculture and industry so far as does not hinder military tasks.

In the field of economy, the program provides that the state shall coordinate and regulate state-owned enterprises, cooperatives, private capitalist enterprises and peasant and handicraft enterprises.

All enterprises vital to the economic life of the country and to the people's livelihood shall come under unified operation by the state, Article 28 says.

Cooperatives are generally to receive preferential treatment. Private enterprises that are beneficial to the national welfare will be fostered.