The retrospective history of the working class in China

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A Summary of the Chinese Labour Movement Since 1949
By Tim Pringle, China Labour Bulletin, 17 August 2001. A background paper prepared for an international conference in Hong Kong, November 2000, that discussed increasing labour unrest in Mainland China and the implications for the labour movement in Hong Kong. The establishment of Workers' Autonomous Federations (WAF) in the 1989 Democracy Movement was the logical conclusion of at least four waves of previous confrontations between the CCP and the urban working class.