Date: Thu, 13 Jun 1996 07:05:40 -0500
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>>> Item number 5923, dated 96/06/13 06:54:53 -- ALL
Date: Thu, 13 Jun 1996 06:54:53 GMT
Reply-To: Rich Winkel <email@example.com>
Sender: Activists Mailing List <ACTIV-L@MIZZOU1.MISSOURI.EDU>
From: Rich Winkel <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Brazil: Guarani & Tupinikim Seek Support
/** headlines: 135.0 **/
** Topic: Guarani & Tupinikim Provide Issue Statement & Seek Support **
** Written 8:47 PM Jun 12, 1996 by econet in cdp:headlines **
/* Written 4:01 PM Jun 10, 1996 by ax:cimi in rainfor.genera */
Guarani and Tupinikim International ---------- */
Date: Mon, 10 Jun 1996 16:01:20 -0300
Subject: Guarani and Tupinikim International Campaign
The text which we hereby present to you aims to inform you about the problems which we, Tupinikim and Guarani indians, during many years have been facing mainly because of the dificult land situation which we encounter.
By means of the information of the present text we apply for efforts of your organization or your person, to support our struggle in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil. We propose the following activities:
1. Efforts in the countries which consume the production of
Celulose S/A. Most important countries are the USA, Belgium,
Great Britain and Japan. Other consuming countries are Italy, South
Koreia, Thailand, France, China, Argentine, Indonesia, Mexico and
recently South Africa.
2. Efforts of organizations which are willing to support our fight in the remaining countries.
3. Efforts in the major foreing shareholder country: Norway.
4. Efforts in Brazil so that pressure will be put on the Company and the Brazilian Government to decide in favor of the indians.
We would like to request your solidarity and collaboration in supporting our struggle in one of the above-mentioned activities. Looking forward to your reply concerning your possible support and/or contribution,
On behalf pf the Commission,
Jonas do Rosario - Iraja community
Jose Luiz Ramos - Caeiras Velhas community
Antonio dos Santos - Pau Brasil community
Francisco Coutinho - Comboios community
Nelson Guarani - Guarani community
Address to be contacted:
Conselho Indigenista Missionario - CIMI
Caixa Postal 30
29190-970 - Aracruz - ES - BRAZIL
Phone/fax: 00 55 27 256 23 74
Sinze 1975, the Tupinikim and Guarani Indians, living at the
municipality of Aracruz, in Espirito Santo State, have been fighting
for the recognition of their rights to occupy their traditional lands.
These lands have been given back to the Indians by the Portuguese
Crown and guaranteed in writing since the Imperial period in Brasil.
Nowadays, the Indians, curtailed on their rights, face misery, the
economic power of big companies and omission of the Brazilian
government. To ensure their survival, the Indians are fighting for the
expansion of the area under their jurisdiction, which presently is
occupied by the market pulp company
Aracruz Celulose S/A.
In 1500 - The Tupinikim Indians were encountered by Portuguese
explorers at the coastline from Sao Paulo to Southern Bahia. Their
population then, was estimated in at least 55 thousand people,
occupying an extension of land around 1,000 km. With the beginning of
domestication of the Indians took place, with
the purpose of establishing the basis and expanding the colonial
project of Portugal.
The immediate goal of the Portuguese Crown, was not only the
occupation of the territory but as well the
development of the colony. The strategy of the colonial enterprise
was the encroachment of indigenous groups in controlled settlements,
catechization of the Indians and transformation of them into slave
labor. The actions of the Jesuit priests, forbidding traditional
ceremonies and dismantling the original tribe arrangements, allowed
stronger control over the Indians. The Indians' enslavement,
diseases and radical changes on their war habits, ended up weakening
the Tupinikim Indians.
Em 1610 - On the 4th of December, a
sesmaria of land (79,2 km
on north-south run) was requested to the Governor of the
Capitania of Espirito Santo and the Portuguese Crown complied
Em 1760 - The piece of the land above mentioned was demarcated through
Termo de Concerto e Composi<ao, but the Indians did not
get all the extension originaly promised. It was only given to the
Indians 61.4 km on north-south run. The historical records say that
this area was confirmed by the Emperor Don Pedro II in 1860, during a
visit to the Province of Espirito Santo.
A map from Espirito Santo, dating 1856, registers a population of 3,548 Indians in the region between Vilas da Serra and Linhares, including the localities of Nova Almeida and Santa Cruz. However, this number of people did not survive the years of colonization. The Indians of Espirito Santo were slowly decimated, victims of various maneuvers against them and personal difficulties. Initially the atacks came from the European explorers and recently, in the 20th Century, by loggers and farmers after their forests.
Other facts were important and decisive for the Tupinikim land to
continue to be taken over by the non-indian Brazilian society. In
1910, it was created by the Federal Government, the Service of
Protection to the Indians (Servi<o de Prote<ao ao Indio-SPI),
which had the main role of
pacifyingthe Indians to allow the
construction of railroads and highways, favoring the establishment of
loggers and farmers.
After 1940, the Indians of Aracruz suffered another invasion of their land. Declaring that the forested areas occupied by the Indians belonged to the Union, the Government gave away lumber and charcoal exploitation concessions. The Iron and Steel Company of Vitoria (Companhia Ferro e A<o de entirely located inside the indigenous territory in the municipality of Aracruz. The forest was devasted and in this period is started the environmental degradation of the region. Once the land was cleared of forest, it was occupied by coffee plantations. The settlers would do anything to displace the Indians.
In 1960 it was registered the presence of Guarani Indians in Espirito Santo, in the region of Caieiras Velhas, where they are presently found.
This Guarani Mbya group still maintains the practice of migrating
continuously in their search for the
land with no maladies- their
paradise. The Guarani keep their costumes and speak Guarani. The
few remnant Guarani people survive from game, fishing, crops and
handicrafts, dividing the little forest left with the Tupinikim
Indians without conflicts.
In the 60s, the SPI was terminated and to replace it, was created the National Indigenous Foundation (Fundacao Nacional do Indio - FUNAI) to support the new governmental goals. This moment is crucial for determining the bad conditions in which the Brazilian Indians live today. The Brazilian Government launched big development projects and the social impact of such initiatives hit directly the Indians. almost all their land, encroached in small back yard properties, making more difficult even more the survival of the group as a whole.
Presently the problems of the Tupinikim and Guarani Indians are directly related with the market pulp company Aracruz Celulose.
According to data from The Bank of National Social Development (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico Social - BNDES), Aracruz owns 203,000 ha in Espirito Santo. This company received from the State and Federal Governments all sort of incentives. From the State of Espirito Santo's Government they bought 30,000 ha of indigenous land for a symbolic value of 8/10 of cents of a cruzeiro for m2. And acquired from COFAVI a peice of property of 10,000 ha (from that indigenous area taken over by this company back in 1940). The remaining of the indigenous territory occupied by Aracruz Celulose nowadays, was taken by different maneuvers mainly grilagem (hiring land buyers who use all sort of violence to grab the land - paying for it or not). displacement of the Indians, declaring that in that area were no Indians.
The native forests were replaced by eucalyptus plantations,
jeopardizing the traditional way of living of the Indians. The Indians
Or you would sell your land or they would take it away
from you and then you would have nothing. Then the Indians got afraid
and started to move away... Aracruz arrived destroying
everything. They brought two bulldozers and a big chain, destroying
everything ahead of them. We found all sort of animals dead. Then the
forests finished, the birds died, and the rivers dried...
The statements of the Indians, who were present during Aracruz's occupation of the land, illustrate realistically the violence imposed by this company, which as well is responsible for the environment degradation in the region.
In 1983, after an intense fight, the Indians got back 4.491,40 ha of their original land (but in discontinuous pieces) and succeeded to have in demarcated by the Government. Since then, the Indians have been distributed into five communities: one Guarani and four Tupinikim. The remnant Indians plantations. Their lands are arid and unproductive, imposing a miserable life to these people. They can not hunt anymore, the rivers are drying and the land does not produce as before.
Ten years later, in 1993, the Indians decided to demand the expansion of their lands, once the indigenous population started to grow again. This proposal was filed with FUNAI, in Brasilia, under number 1632/93. The Indians want their land back, because they depend from it for their survival. The Indians are proposing the restoration of the area destroyed by Aracruz with eucalyptus plantations to original forests, so that they can have game, fish and freedom again.
Despite the fact that the Indians are facing a process of acculturation, surviving of small crop plantations and selling handicrafts, the Tupinikim and Guarani Indians are being able to get organized. Presently they are fighting for the control of 13,579 ha, which has always been theirs and would allow for their survival.
The Indians' proposal for expansion of their present area, is for the unification of the communities of Caieias Velhas and Pau Brasil, which will Comboios community to a total area of 3,800 ha.
After establishing a strong network to obtain support for their claim, in the 30th of November of 1993, the Indians succeed to be heard by the Federal deputy Chamber's Commission on Environment and Minorities. That day, the President of FUNAI, established a Working Group (Grupo de Trabalho - GT) to reassess, identify and implement the demarcation of the Tupinikim an Guarani indigenous areas. Under the decree 0783/94 of 30th August 1994, the GT was officially established. This Working Group produced a report, approved by the Indians and which supports the demand of the Indians. All the paper work is concluded and now it is needed to be officially published (Diario Oficial da Uniao).
The publication of the report's conclusions has been suspended, due to a new decree (1775/96) from 8th January of 1996, by the Minister of Justice, which changed the procedures for the official recognition of indigenous territories. This decree open possibilities for Aracruz and others to protest against the demands of the Indians. Indigenous groups of all over Brasil are fighting against this decree and threat that these changes will mean for their survival in the areas traditionally belonging to them.
Even recognizing that Aracruz or the Brazilian Government have no interest Indians, they will not give up. The Indians recognize that succeeding to get a report from the Working Group was a first step. Given these facts, the Tupinikim and Guarani Indians are launching an international campaign asking for the support of ngos, indigenous defense groups, personalities and authorities to put pressure on Aracruz Celulose, and over the Brazilian Government to redefine the boundaries of the lands.