The social history of the Taino
of Boriken (Native Puerto Rico)

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UPR study finds high Taino DNA rate: Tests contradict theory of extinction of P.R. natives
By Melba Ferrer, San Juan Star, 18 April 18 1999. DNA studies at the University of Puerto Rico indicate that Taino mitochondrial DNA is more prevalent than previously believed. Among random choen volunteers, a 53% came up with Indo American mitochondrial DNA. The indigenous genetic inheritance in P.R. could be higher than that from Caucasian and Negroid.
The Taino Term Jibaro and its Meaning
By Cacike Pedro Guanikeyu Torres, 16 January 2000. In Boriken (Puerto Rico) the term Jibaro also is directly relates to the Taino mestizo Indian of the hill country better known as El Campesino or the humble country folk (brief).
An Interview On the Taino DNA testing in Puerto Rico
Of Juan Carlos Martinez, Profiles, 15 August 2000. Professor of Genetics, Juan Carlos Martínez Cruzado is interviewd about his DNA research project to determine the continental origin of the mtDNA of Puerto Ricans. Surprising resutls. High incidence among the university students and--who were considered pure Amerindians by the census of 1777 and 1787.
US Government Census 2000 And The Taino Indians of Puerto Rico
Jatibonicu Press release, 8 April 2001. We feel that the low count of Taino for the census may have been due to a misunderstanding to chose the American Indian race category. This was due to misinformation and the confusion of the term American Indian as it related to the American Indians of the United States.