Haiti under military rule (Feb 1986–Dec 1990)

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The Post-Duvalier Period
U.S. Library of Congress, Country Studies, December 1989. Jean-Claude Duvalier left behind a hastily constructed interim junta, controlled by the armed forces. The Council of Government (CNG) the VSN, but it avoided the politically difficult measure of effectively halting the VSN's activities. This nonfeasance prompted angry mobs to murder known members of the VSN and set in motion a cycle of instability from which Haiti had yet to recover.
Former head of Haitian Communist Party dead in Miami at age 62
By Michael Norton, Associated Press, 1 June 2003. Obituary of Rene Theodore. He was forced into exile in 1967 by Duvalier and returned in 1986 when a popular uprising ousted Duvalier fils. He founded a new party, the Movement for National Reconstruction, but lost support when he unsuccessfully opposed Aristide for the presidency in December 1990. He was associated with the opposition to Aristide since 2000.
Search for the Authors of the Massacre in Jean Rabel
Haiti: Update, 13 September 1995. Warrants for the detention of the accused participants in the massacre of July 23, 1987, in the region of Jean Rabel. The bloody attack, led by Tonton Macoutes at the service of a few large landowners, ended in the assassination of an estimated 250 peasants with another 700 wounded. It was the climax in a long persecution of the members of Tet Kole, a peasant association, who were demanding land which had been expropriated by the local wealthy families.
Jean Rabel Massacre commemorated with outcry and excuses
In Haiti Progres, This Week in Haiti, 29 July–4 August 1998. The massacre of July 23, 1987 in the northwestern town of Jean Rabel, where armed gangs in the pay of big landowners attacked small peasants demonstrating for land redistribution in the region. Some 139 peasants were killed and many more wounded. The Duvaliers and then US occupation aimed at stability and so perspetuated social ills.
Though Duvalier is Gone, Haiti Still Needs Help
By Mark Danner, Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley, The New York Times, 19 May 1986. Three months have passed since the former President, Jean-Claude Duvalier flew off into exile and, clearly, building the new Haiti will be a slow and painful process. Mr. Duvalier bequeathed his country a weak interim Government headed by the former Army chief of staff, Gen. Henri Namphy, which has spent the past three months struggling to wrest the political initiative from a newly vocal opposition.
Just past ten on a sunny morning last month in Port-au-Prince...
By Mark Danner, The New Yorker, 16 July 1990. The fate of the post-Duvalierist opposition that took root since Duvalier's departure in 1986. Now Haiti is on its fifth government. After the 1987 massacre, the U.S. stopped funding the government, and the military put together another election, and Leslie F. Manigat became President for four months, until General Namphy deposed him. Namphy lasted three months before being deposed by another general, Prosper Avril, who managed to reign for eighteen months, with increasing brutality, before a popular uprising forced him to flee the country in March 1990.
Former Haitian leader in legal tug of war
By Marika Lynch mlynch@herald.com, Herald, [Wednesday 4 December 2002]. Prosper Avril, former Haitian president through a 1988 coup, accused torturer and one-time Miami mamey farmer, sits in the National Penitentiary contemplating his future. A confidant and financial advisor to the former ruling Duvalier family and a member of the presidential guard, Avril had an 18-month reign over Haiti.
The Point is the U.S. is Prosper Avril' accomplice!
Discussion from the Haiti list, 31 August 2003. Protection of Avril was the aim of the U.S. government.
‘Before realizing our hopes, it may be very costly for Haiti’
By Alva James-Johnson, South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 3 January 2004. An interview with former Haitian President Leslie Manigat. Manigat, a political science scholar educated in France, is regarded by many Haitian intellectuals as one of the country's most educated and progressive presidents. But he has failed to capture the popular support of the masses.