Date: Sat, 2 Sep 1995 08:45:49 -0400
Sender: Progressive News & Views List <PNEWS-L@SJUVM.stjohns.edu>
Subject: Blacks in America
From: Steve Coker <Steve.Coker@f14.n372.z1.fidonet.org>
Blacks in America. Statistical Brief
By Steve Coker <Steve.Coker@f14.n372.z1.fidonet.org>
|Median Earnings of Year-Round, Full-Time Workers|
by Sex and Race:
1979 and 1991 (1991 dollars)
Between 1980 and 1992, the Black population increased an average of 1.4 percent per year, twice the annual growth rate of the White population (0.6 percent). The vast majority of this growth (84 percent) came from natural increase; the remainder came from immigration.
Blacks are concentrated in the South. In 1992, more than one-half of Blacks, but less than one-third of Whites, lived there. In addition, Blacks were twice as likely as Whites to live in central cities (56 percent compared with 26 percent) and less likely to live in the suburbs (29 percent versus 51 percent).
Blacks are closing the high school diploma gap. Back in 1980, 51 percent of Blacks aged 25 and over had earned at least a high school diploma; the corresponding figure for Whites was 71 percent. Twelve years later, this gap had closed from 20 percentage points to 13 points (68 percent versus 81 percent).
However, the proportion of adults aged 25 and over with at least a bachelor's degree grew by equal percentages over the period for both groups--from 8 percent to 12 percent for Blacks, from 18 percent to 22 percent for Whites.
A college education, incidentally, does pay off. The median earnings in 1991 of year-round, full-time Black workers aged 25 and over who were high school graduates only was $18,620. But those with at least a bachelor's earned $30,910.
Proportionately fewer families today (both Black and White) contain a married couple. Such families comprised 56 percent of all Black families in 1980, but just 47 percent in 1992. The corresponding decline for Whites was smaller, from 86 percent to 82 percent.
Families maintained by women with no spouse present rose from 40 percent to 46 percent of Black families; the proportion maintained by men with no spouse rose from 4 percent to 7 percent.
As a result, just 36 percent of Black children and 77 percent of White children under 18 years old lived with both parents in 1992. The corresponding 1980 figures were 42 percent and 83 percent.
In March 1992, Black men (aged 16 and over) were less likely than White men to be in the labor force (70 percent compared with 76 percent). However, the labor force participation rates for Black and White women (58 percent) did not differ. The unemployment rate for Blacks (14 percent) was more than double that for Whites (6 percent).
Proportionately fewer Black than White men worked in managerial and professional specialty jobs (14 percent versus 27 percent); relatively more Black men were operators, fabricators, and laborers (31 percent versus 19 percent) and held service jobs (19 percent compared with 9 percent). It was more common for Black than for White women to work in service jobs (28 percent versus 17 percent), less likely for them to work in managerial and professional specialty (20 percent versus 29 percent) and in technical, sales, and administrative support jobs (38 percent versus 45 percent).
The median income for Black families was $21,550 in 1991, 57 percent of the total for White families. After adjusting for inflation, family income for both groups was unchanged from 1979. But income has changed for different family types:
In 1991, the median earnings of year-round, full-time Black male workers was 73 percent that of comparable White males ($22,080 versus $30,270). Black female year-round, full-time workers earned 90 percent that of their White counterparts ($18,720 compared with $20,790). The Black-to-White earnings ratios didn't change between 1979 and 1991 for either sex. (See table above.)
Between 1979 and 1991, poverty rates changed little for Black and White persons and families in general, but rates did change for certain groups. For instance, Black related children under 18 years old in families saw their poverty rate rise from 41 percent to 46 percent over the period. The table below 1991 poverty rates for different groups.
|Percent Below the Poverty Level: 1991|
|Related children under age 18 in families||46||16|
|Aged 65 or over||34||10|
|Worked in 1991||15||6|
|49 weeks or less||29||12|
|Maintained by a married couple||11||5|
|Maintained by a woman, no spouse present||51||28|
|Maintained by a man, no spouse present||22||11|
Black householders were much more likely in 1992 to rent than to own a home (56 percent versus 42 percent); the opposite was true for Whites - 31 percent were renters, 67 percent were owners.
"The Black Population in the United States: March 1992." Current Population Reports, Series P20-471. For sale by U.S. Government Printing Office. Stock No. 803-005-00072-9. $7. Extensive information on the Black population for small geographic entities is available from the 1990 census. Contact Customer Services (301-763-4100) for more information.
Black population - Claudette E. Bennett
Statistical Briefs - Robert Bernstein
This Brief is one of a series that presents information of current policy interest. It may include data from businesses, households, or other sources. All statistics are subject to sampling variability, as well as survey design flaws, respondent classification errors, and data processing mistakes. The Census Bureau has taken steps to minimize errors, and analytical statements have been tested and meet statistical standards. However, because of methodological differences, use caution when comparing these data with data from other sources.
For more information from the report, "The Black Population in the United States: March 1992," see menu 16.10.1.