From nobody Tue Mar 4 10:35:40 2003
Message-ID: <>
Date: Tue, 11 Feb 2003 10:07:14 +0000
From: Charles R Spinner <>
Newsgroups: soc.culture.african.american,soc.culture.african
Subject: Re: Crummell: Our Heroes Live On

Alexander Crummell

The Internet African-American History Challenge, [4 March 2003]

Alexander Crummell's father (Boston Crummell) announced to his master that he would serve him no longer and left for freedom.

Alexander was happy to be known as the boy whose father could not be a slave. Boston Crummell lived in New York City among the most freedom conscious blacks of the time. Passing through the Crummell household would be John Russwarm, Samuel Cornish and other prominent blacks of the time.

Among Alexander's classmates at the New York African School were Henry Highland Garnet, Ira Aldridge and Samuel Ringgold Ward. Alexander was destined for greatness and his father assured his academic success by hiring private tutors.

Until recently, Alexander Crummell was not often discussed in black history yet his influence on Black people during his time has survived to this day. He was a scholar, college professor, preacher, advocate for the emigration of Blacks to Africa and advocate of African self help.

Crummell left the United States in 1847 for England and Liberia for nearly a quarter century. During his stay in Liberia he worked as a missionary for the Episcopal Church and professor at Liberia College. Crummell found the racism of the mulattos in Liberia to be intolerable which caused him to return to the United States.

In 1873 he returned to Washington DC. There he was appointed missionary at large of the colored people. In Washington he planned and realized his vision of the church in the black community. His vision was that the black church should be a place of worship and social service.

In 1880 he established Saint Luke's Church that would fulfill his vision. Many younger black ministers would seek to duplicate Crummell'ss achievements in shaping the role of the black church in the community. Crummell took the lead in encouraging black ministers in Washington to join together and establish charitable institutions for the race. He organized the Black Episcopal clergy to fight racism in the church.

His contribution to African American life went beyond the doors of the church. He was instrumental in establishing the American Negro Academy, a national organization of the best educated an prominent African Americans. There is little doubt that this organization and Crummell inspired W.E.B. DuBois' idea of a talented tenth.

Crummell emphasized African-American self help and the need for education that was solid and practical. He developed this idea independent of Booker T. Washington of whom he was highly critical. Alexander Crummell was among the first black nationalist. His ideas to improve the moral, intellectual, economic and cultural conditions of black people played an important role in preparing Blacks for the twentieth century.