African American history in late 19th century

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1999 Juneteenth unity meeting speech at USP Allenwood
By Sundiata Acoli, 19 June 1999. Juneteenth originated from the Emancipation Proclamation sent out by telegraph by then president Abraham Lincoln on January 1st, 1863, during the height of the Civil War. Many middle class Blacks were ashamed of Juneteenth and most told Whites they didn't celebrate Juneteenth but celebrated July 4th instead.
Juneteenth 1997: Which way to Freedom?
By Nelson Peery, People's Tribune. On the 19th of June, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed a bill abolishing slavery in the federal territories.
After Slavery: The Fight For 40 Acres and a Mule
Excepts from an article by Jack Barnes in The Militant. The 1867–77 period Radical Reconstruction that followed the Civil War and the class forces that led to its bloody defeat.
The Buffalo Soldiers
By Prof. Sandra Smiling, 3 October 1999. The history of African American soldiers after the Civil War.
Over100 Years Later, Black Cadet Gets his Due
People's Weekly World, 29 July 1995. In 1876, Johnson Whittaker was one of the first African Americans to attend West Point. Injustice and his ultimate vindication.
Rigged Elections in 1876: Black freedom crushed by electoral college
Workers World, 23 November 2000. The story of the 1876 switch of votes is not only one of corruption at the polls but of a betrayal of colossal proportions. It was directed first of all against the Black people and it ended Reconstruction.
Alexander Crummell
The Internet African-American History Challenge, [4 March 2003]. Until recently, Alexander Crummell's influence on Black people during his time has survived to this day. He was a scholar, college professor, preacher, advocate for the emigration of Blacks to Africa and advocate of African self help. He was among the first black nationalists.
Lucy Parsons, Chicago Revolutionary
By Jon F. Rice, in People's Tribune, 13 February 1995. Lucy Parsons, widow of a Haymarket victim in 1886, was a warrior for Chicago's poor.
Review of Leon F. Litwack, Trouble In Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1998) (excerpt)
Reviewed in New Politics. Southern Blacks had to endure gratuitous suffering from the outrages of white folks who denied their common humanity. In the 1890s, lynching and sadistic torture rapidly became exclusive public rituals of the South, with black men and women as their principle victims.
Black Soldiers: A History of Valor & Resistance
By Carlos Rovira, in Workers World. In the U.S. conquest of Spanish colonies in 1898, some African Americans, including W. E. B. Dubois, expressed solidarity with the Philippine people, and some joined the Philippine side.