African-American history from the end of the 19th century to the 1920s

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Creating Jobs and Expanding Opportunity
ZNet Commentary by Sean Gonsalves, 17 August 2000. The convict lease system after the Civil War permitted the leasing of convicts to private parties in exchange for payments made to the state. Of the four million or so slaves liberated by the 13th amendment, the overwhelming majority was relegated to the margins of the economy as sharecroppers, tenant-farmers or victims of the South's notorious crop lien system.
North Carolina Should Pay for 1898 Race Riot
By Mike Baker, Associated Press, Washington Post, 1 June 2006. A state-appointed commission is urging North Carolina to provide reparations for the 1898 racial violence that sparked an exodus of more than 2,000 black residents from Wilmington. The violence, which killed as many as 60 people, was not a spontaneous riot but rather the nation's only recorded coup d'etat.
Ota Benga
From Cinque B Sengbe, 27 January 1998. In 1906, an African, named Ota Benga, was displayed as a monkey. [Evidence that racism was not in decline at the time of the Civil War, but was about to become more virulent in the form of so-called scientific racism.]
A Painful Present as Historians Confront a Nation's Bloody Past
By Claudia Kolker, LA Times. The so-called Elaine Riot of 1919 has eluded most documentation, even common remembrance.
Review of Theodore Kornweibel, Jr., ‘Seeing Red’: Federal Campaigns Against Black Militancy, 1919–1925
Reviewed for H-Pol by Kenneth O'Reilly 1 June 2000. The State Department Military Intelligence Division, Office of Naval Intelligence, Post Office Department, and most of all the Justice Department’s General Intelligence Division (GID) and the Bureau of Investigation assumed that that second-class citizens would have second-class loyalties and thus were fair game for informants, bugs, taps, mail openings, dirty tricks, bogus prosecutions, and other imperial habits.
The Politics of Lynching
By Earl Ofari Hutchinson, 31 August 2000. Compulsive collector James Allen has revived a new debate about an old topic: lynching. Allen's macabre one-man exhibit of photos. Blacks and white who see it rail at the barbarism and sadism of the Southern white mobs almost always responsible for the crimes, but their anger is misdirected. The real blame for seven decades of lynching lies with the federal government.
The Story of Hosea Hudson: Lessons of a Black worker in the deep South still loom large
By Barbara Jean Hope, People's Weekly World, 4 February 1995.
‘Queen Mother’ Moore; black nationalist leader
Associated Press, 5 May 1996. Audley ‘Queen Mother’ Moore, an outspoken civil rights leader and black nationalist who befriended leaders from Marcus Garvey to Nelson Mandela, has died at age 98.
From Alabama's Past, Capitalism Teamed with Racism to Create Cruel Partnership
By Douglas A. Blackmon, Wall Street Journal, 16 July 2001. In the early decades of the 20th century, tens of thousands of convicts—most of them indigent black men—were snared in a largely forgotten justice system rooted in racism and nurtured by economic expedience and were effectively slaves.
Harry Haywood
Comment by “Wastline”, 11 October 2007. When the history of the communist movement in America is written, Harry Haywood is going to emerge as a seminal figure in world communism. Harry was trained by real Bolsheviks and willingly became part of the political orbit of Lenin and Stalin within the Third Communist International.
Citizens of Color, 1863–1890: The ‘Talented Tenth’
By Haines Brown, From the exhibition of Hartford Black history, ‘A Struggle from the Start’ 7 January 1998. Text and photos of two examples of success stories in Hartford, Connecticut. This illustrates the kind of values often employed in writing Black history.