From Protest to the bid for Power

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The Forgotten Martyrs of Orangeburg
By Monica Moorehead, Workers World, February 1995. The Orangeburg Massacre at South Carolina State University, 8 February 1968, reflecting shift from focus from civil rights to Black Power.
The FBI's War on the BPP's Southern California Chapter
By Sikivu Kabaila, 31 October 1999. Article is primarliy about Ron Maulana Karenda and his US organization and their relation to the Black Panther Party. Documents for the history of the Black Panthers are collected elsewhere.
Interview with Angela Davis
By PBS and WGBH, Frontline, 11 October 1998. Wide ranging interview, concerning the history of the civil rights struggle, the black bourgeoisie, the relation of social class and Black liberation, the globalization of struggle, Dr. King, the labor movement, BPP vs. Karenga's Kwanza, etc.
A photo of Angela Davis with Jim Grant’s parents
At a fundraiser for Jim Grant's defense, Hartford, CT.
Attica Brother Akil Al-Jundi dies. Akil Al-Jundi, 56, Inmate Turned Legal Advocate
New York Times obituary, 20 August 1997. Akil Al-Jundi was the lead plaintiff in the class action suit against the State of New York for abuse of Attica prisoners following the uprising of 1971.
Cops and Klan walked after Greensboro, NC massacre—Witness to massacre, 10 years old at time, serves life sentences
By Kathryn Watterson, Trenton Times, 25 February 1996. In 1979 police turn blind eye while Klan and nazi mob massacres peaceful Poor Peoples march in Greensboro. Justice still has not been served.
Ten years after Harold Washington
People's Tribune, November 1997. An assessment of the importance of Harold Washington, Mayor of Chicago, ten years after his death in 1985, Since then, despite the extreem polarization of wealth and poverty and the vanishing of the most basic public services, thanks to Mayor Harold Washington, people are more prepared, more alert than ever before.
Review of A Nation within a nation, and Black power politics
By James Smethurst, The Journal of American History, March 2000. The book is a seminal discussion of the black power movement, based in both the ideological and the practical activities of a local organization, the Committee for a Unified Newark (cfun), later the Newark chapter of the Congress of African People (cap), led by Amiri Baraka, one of the most important political and cultural figures in the post-World War II US.
Sonny Carson: prominent Black nationalist
By Monica Moorehead, Workers World, 9 January 2003. Sonny Carson, an important figure in the Black nationalist movement in New York City, passed away Dec. 20. Carson, a Brooklyn native, became politicized while serving in the Army during the 1950s. He wrote an autobiography that reflected the life of painful survival that millions of Black youths are still forced to endure today.
Robert F. Williams & armed self-determination
By Larry Hales, Workers World, 5 February 2005. Williams is ignored by bourgeois historians because of his militant approach to dealing with the racist violence against Black people. He advocated the right of armed self-determination for Black people against the Ku Klux Klan and even the police that supported them. Yet he was not the first to argue for armed self-determination.