Date: Mon, 2 Nov 1998 22:52:35 -0600 (CST)
From: Greek Helsinki Monitor <email@example.com>
Subject: Belgium-France-Germany-Greece Denounced for Religious Intolerance
Human Rights Without Frontiers, 26 October 1998
HRWF (26.10.98)—In my capacity as chairman of
Without Frontiers in Brussels, I would like to talk briefly about
a sensitive issue with regard to religious freedom in the European
Union: the cult issue. In the last few years, official enquiry
commissions have been set up. France was the first country to create a
parliamentary enquiry commission on cults. Its methodology was very
controversial and was heavily criticized by sociologists and
historians of religions. The French parliamentary report led to the
creation of an Observatory of Cults and this month to an
Interministerial Mission on Cults that will carry out a more
aggressive policy. Two laws are now to be voted by the National
Assembly. The first one is meant to control the finances of
cults more strictly. The second one is dealing with the control
of homeschooling practised by the children of members of so-called
On April 28, 1997, the Belgian parlieamentary commission on cults
released its report in which you can find a list of 189
controversial movements, including inside the Catholic
Church. In the recommendations, it was even proposed to introduce into
the Penal Code an article providing for a sentence of 2 to 5 years in
prison and/or a fine for those who use beatings, violence, threats or
psychological manipulation to persuade an individual of the existence
of false undertakings, imaginory powers or imminent fantastical
On June 19, 1998, after 2 years' work, the German Enquiry
Commission passed its report with a large majority. It was
surprisingly less negative than it had been feared after the interim
report. The German Commission was also the first to approach the issue
from the viewpoint that it is the State's duty to protect
consumers against illegal or unfair practices of cults and
psychogroups. The Commission also recommended to keep Scientology
under observation but in its conclusion, it stated that cults and
psychogroups do not represent any danger to the democratic
state. Another positive point was that it strongly recommended to drop
sect because of its bad
connotation. The European Parliament unsuccessfully tried to draft a
report of its own but on two occcasions in six months' time, it
was rejected by the plenary session.
The Council of Europe is also preparing a report on cults but in September it was rejected and sent back to the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights for further examination. After the failure of the European Parliament's report, it now seems that the Council of Europe does not know any more what to do and where to go with its report.
Since the creation of parliamentary commissions, the publication of their reports and the setting up of observatories of sects, the mandates of which are ambiguous and open the door to dangerous and harmful deviances, a number of media have been libelling minority religions, circulating rumors and false information, inciting religious intolerance with total impunity.
On this background, a threefold pattern of real persecution is developing.
Firstly, those minority religions have been marginalized, stigmatized and lynched. Access to public halls for meetings has been denied to a number of them, has been more difficult or more expensive than for other organizations. Officials have become pernickety in fulfilling their administrative duties. Children at school and adults in their neighbourhood have been stigmatized.
Secondly, we now see
unpopular minority religious isolated from
all the others and targeted by the fiscal administration:
Jehovah's Witnesses and the Evangelical Pentecostal Church of
Besanšon. The reaction of public opinion or its lack of reaction may
be a testing ground for the treatment to be applied tomorrow to other
Thirdly, it can be feared that plans are being carried out to crush and kill minority religions one by one.
Despite this dark description of the process of deterioration of
religious liberty in the European Union, two recent events may
encourage all those who are concerned about the future of religious
freedom on our continent. This month, two more reports have been
published: one in Sweden and one in Tessin, a canton of
Switzerland. Both reproach France and other countries to wage war
against their minority religions and
to make common cause with the
anti-cult movement. The Swedish Parliament has chosen to follow
the opposite direction, to promote dialogue between the State and
society on the one hand and minority religions on the other hand.
The way is now open to a new generation of reports on cults and to new
more peaceful strategies. Let us hope France, Belgium, Germany and
others will give up their aggressive methods towards cults and will
listen to the voice of wisdom coming from Sweden.
HRWF (28.10.98)—The IHF is concerned about clear attempts on the
part of EU and national governments in Western Europe to adopt new
legal provisions to
protect individuals from
sects) which are deemed harmful, and to
On 30 April 1998, the Belgian Chamber of Representatives adopted a
draft law regarding the establishment of an information and advisory
harmful sectarian organizations. The center will
scrutinize 189 religious organizations listed in the Belgian
Parliamentary Sect Report. An inappropriate methodology in preparing
the report resulted in making a virtual
black list of sects
among which are a number of Protestan churches and organizations to
which about 50 percent of the Belgian Protestant population
belong. The publication of the Parliamentary Sect Report triggered
slanderous reporting in some Belgian media, based on erroneous
information and resulting in increased religious intolerance.
In France, increasing intolerance and discrimination against
religions is also being observed.
In January 1996, the National Assembly published the Guyard report, which listed 172 cults deemed harmful and dangerous. This resulted in media reports libeling minority religions, the circulation of rumors and false information, and incitement of religious intolerance.
The fact that the Greek constitution gives the Eastern Orthodox church the status of an official religion continues to be a major human rights concern.
In a judgment against Greece for violation of article 9 of the
European Convention on human rights, the European Court of Human
Rights criticized in 1996 Greek legislation for
far-reaching interference by the political, administrative and
ecclesiastical authorities with the exercise of religious freedom
imposing rigid or indeed prohibitive conditions on the
practice of religious beliefs by certain non-Orthodox movements,
concluding that there is
a clear tendency on the part of the
administrative and ecclesiastical authorities to use these provisions
to restrict activities of faiths outside the Orthodox Church.
The IHF deplores that since this clear judgment, no progress has been made by the Greek legislature to modify legislation that run counter to international human rights law.
The IHF is calling upon OSCE delegations to give due attention to the increasing religious intolerance in the Western part of the continent and propose concrete steps to reverse this dangerous trend.